B. Structure of Fungi 1. Fungi can be unicellular (e.g., yeasts). 2. Most fungi are multicellular in structure.
1. Plants are divided into two main groups: nonvascular and vascular plants. 2. Nonvascular plants include:a. hornworts (division Anthocerotophyta) b. liverworts (division Hepatophyta) c. mosses (division Bryophyta)
D. Adaptation of Nonvascular Plants 1. Nonvascular plants are limited by lack of structural vascular tissue and need for water for sperm. 2. They have advantages living on stone walls, etc. and contribute to soil formation.
A. Vascular Tissue 1. Xylem is vascular tissue that conducts water and minerals up from the soil. 2. Phloem is vascular tissue that transports organic nutrients from one part of the plant to another.
B. Organs of Vascular Plants 1. Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil. 2. Stems conduct water and minerals to leaves and conduct organic nutrients from leaves to roots. 3. Leaves are adapted to maximize photosynthetic activity; they are covered by a waxy cuticle. 4. Leaves have openings (stomates) that open and close to regulate gas and water exchange.
D. Reproduction in Vascular Plants 1. Seedless vascular plants (ferns and their allies) disperse their species by producing windblown spores. a. When spores germinate, a large gametophyte develops independent of sporophyte for nutrition. b. Antheridia of gametophyte release flagellated sperm that swim in a film of water to archegonia of the gametophyte, where fertilization occurs. 2. In seed plants there is a separate microgametophyte (male) and megagametophyte (female).
A. Seedless Vascular Plants 1. The seedless vascular plants include: a. whisk ferns (division Psilotophyta), b. club mosses (division Lycopodopyta), c. horsetails, (division Equisetophyta) d. and ferns (division Pteridophyta). 2. These divisions are not closely related.
A. The Life Cycle of Seed Plants 1. Gymnosperms include the: a. conifers (division Pinophyta) b. cycads (division Cycadophyta) c. ginkgo (division Ginkgophyta) d. gnetophytes (division Gnetophyta) .
B. Gymnosperm Diversity 1. Gymnosperms produce naked seeds not enclosed in a fruit but exposed on the surface of sporophylls.
C. Conifers 3. Conifers usually have evergreen needle-like leaves well adapted to withstand extremes in climate. 4. Needles have thick cuticle, sunken stomates, and reduced surface area.
A. Angiosperms Are Flowering Plants 1. Over 235,000 species of angiosperms (flowering plants) belong to division Magnoliophyta. 2. Angiosperms produce seeds enclosed in fruit.
C. Classification of Flowering Plants 1. Angiosperms are divided into two groups: dicotyledons and monocotyledons. 2. Dicotyledons are in class Magnoliopsida and have these features: a. either woody or herbaceous, b. flower parts usually in fours and fives, c. leaves usually net-veined, d. vascular bundles arranged in a circle within the stem, and e. produce two cotyledons (seed leaves) at germination.