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Reproduction (Pregnancy & Delivery)

Reproduction (Pregnancy & Delivery). Fertilization & Development Signs and symptoms of pregnancy Complications Nutrition, pre-natal care Labor & Delivery. I. Fertilization & Development. Contact Acrosomal Reaction – upon contact with the egg the sperm changes

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Reproduction (Pregnancy & Delivery)

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  1. Reproduction (Pregnancy & Delivery) • Fertilization & Development • Signs and symptoms of pregnancy Complications • Nutrition, pre-natal care • Labor & Delivery

  2. I. Fertilization & Development • Contact • Acrosomal Reaction – upon contact with the egg the sperm changes • Fusion of sperm & egg triggers a signal-transduction pathway, causing the release of Ca+ into the cytosol • Ca+ triggers the activation program (series of metabolic changes within egg) • Aerobic respiration increases, maternal proteins become active, major transcription/translation occurs • Egg nucleus completes meiosis

  3. B. Cleavage • Zygote is Totipotent undergoes Cleavage = series of rapid mitotic divisions with no period of growth during each cell cycle (cell # increases, but not size) • 2, 4, 16, 32… becoming a solid ball of blastomeres, called a morula that reaches the uterine cavity 72-80 hours post fertilization • Blastula = 64 to several hundred blastomeres

  4. Day 5: enters uterus, zona pellucida is dissolved, blastocyst • Outer layer of cells = trophoplast, forms chorion & amnion • Inner cell mass – gives rise to the embryo • Day 7: implantation begins, trophoblast cells in contact w/endometrium secrete enzymes that erode an area large enough for the tiny embryo • Embryo works its way into connective & vascular tissues, all further development takes place within the endometrium At this stage, the inner cell mass consists of 50 cells, some of which will become the fetus, others the placenta

  5. C. Extraembryonic Membranes • Chorion – develops into fetal half of placenta • Yolk sac – first site of blood cell formation • Allantois – blood vessels become umbilical blood vessels • Amnion – contains fluids to cushion & protect embryo

  6. D. Placenta – connection to mom • Develops from the chorion & the uterine tissue, acts as a transfer vehicle & synthesis center • Placental provides nutrients and oxygen for fetus via diffusion across the placental barrier into the bloodstream of the fetus & removes wastes which mom excretes • Acts as an endocrine organ, secreting estrogens and progesterone to maintain pregnancy • umbilical cord develops & connects the embryo to the placenta • Produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

  7. After 1st two months: • Embryo is a Fetus • All organs continue to develop • Muscles develop, embryo can move • Brain begins regulating function of some organs 5.5 weeks: http://media.health.discovery.com/centers/pregnancy/video/video.html

  8. Terms & definitions • Embryo – • Fetus – • Pregnancy divided into trimesters: • First trimester – • Second trimester – • Third trimester – • Previable – infant delivered prior to 24 weeks • Preterm – • Term –

  9. II. Signs of pregnancy A. Symptoms For a woman who has regular menstrual cycles and is sexually active, a period delayed by more than a few days to a week is suggestive of pregnancy • “morning sickness” – nausea and vomiting • Breast swelling and tenderness, fatigue • BBT of 98.8 – 99.8 for 3 weeks post ovulation • OTC urine pregnancy tests & hospital serum assays tests for the beta subunit of hCG • Confirmation by ultrasound which may show the gestational sac as early as 5 weeks • Cervical & uterine changes • Due date calculation (Nagle’s rule) = subtract 3 months from the LMP and add 7 days • If ovulation date is known, the date can be calculated by adding 266 days

  10. B. Maternal changes during pregnancy Profound and multiple physiological adjustments occur • Cardiovascular – • Pulmonary – • Gastrointestinal – Nausea & vomiting occur in > 70% of all pregnancies. • Renal – kidneys increase and ureters dilate increasing urinary frequency, edema occurs in 25% of pregnant women • Hematology – plasma volume increases by 50%, hypercoagulability • Musculoskeletal • Dermatologic – spider angiomata, hyperpigmentation of nipples, stretch marks

  11. Changes in uterine size over duration of pregnancy:

  12. III. Complications • PIH – pregnancy induced hypertension • Gestational diabetes • Ectopic pregnancy – implants outside uterine cavity (1/100 pregnancies)

  13. Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) • 1/6 pregnancies • Placenta previa

  14. IV. Nutrition & prenatal care BUILDING A BABY!!! • Vitamins & Minerals, supplements & food • Protein • Iron • Folic Acid • What to avoid… • Tobacco • Alcohol/drugs • Caffeine • OTC drugs • Excessive weight gain (40-50 lb)

  15. V. Labor and Delivery • Labor = contractions that cause cervical change in either effacement or dilation • “false labor” = irregular contractions that yield little or no cervical change • Stages • Cervical examination • Labor may be induced via prostaglandins, oxytocic agents, mechanical dilation or artificial rupture of membranes

  16. B. Childbirth Pain Relief Options • Systemic analgesics • Regional Blocks • Non-drug relief options

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