Unit I: The Cold War Period (1945—1965) Recent American History
What should I be able to do? • Define the Cold War • Explain the reasons behind why the U.S. and the USSR were fighting during the years of 1945-1991 and explain how each country fought the war • Contrast communism and capitalism and democracy vs. totalitarianism
What Was the Cold War? • Cold: Rifle range is cold when no rounds are being sent down range, hot when rounds are being fired • War: Conflict between two nations, groups or people. Oftentimes associated with physical fighting • Cold War: Time of conflict ranging from 1945 to 1991 between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was a verbal, and psychological war between the two nations
If it Truly was a Cold War, Then How Did Each Nation Fight? • Both nations competed in the Arms Race andSpace Race where each nation tried to gain more weapons and greater technology • Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): “He who fires first, dies second”
Cause 1: Ideological Differences Incompatibility of Economic and Political Systems
Ideological Differences • Ideology: the ideas reflecting the social needs and desires of an individual, group, class or culture • Capitalism vs. Communism • Democracy vs. Totalitarianism
Capitalism • Accumulation of the means of production as property into a few hands. • Property = Capital • Property Owners = Capitalists • Social System based on INDIVIDUAL Rights.
Communism • A Stateless, property-less, and classless society. • All property is owned by the community as a whole, and all people enjoy equal social and economic status. • From Each according to his ability, to each according to his need. • (Not how it has EVER played out)
Capitalism v. Communism • Progress results when individuals follow their own self interest. • Businesses (make money) • Goods that are better and cheaper. • Consumers (save money) • purchase the best goods at the lowest prices. • Government should not interfere in the economy. • Movements in history are the result of economic struggles. • ‘haves’ v. ‘have nots’ • Workers are exploited by employers. • Labor of workers creates profit for employers. • Capitalism will destroy itself and a classless society will develop
Capitalism v. Communism • Adam Smith • The Wealth of Nations • 1776 • Karl Marx • The Communist Manifesto • 1848 • Major revolutions • Russia/USSR: 1917-1991 • China: 1949 – Present • N. Korea: 1948 – Present • Cuba: 1959 – Present • Vietnam: 1953/73 to Present
Cold War Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors • Directions/Rules • Find a partner • Play 3 rounds of rock-paper-scissors (1 round=best out of three shoots) • At the end each round, the loser must give the winner two pieces of their candy • Odds and Ends • In game, candy=money and winning=hard work (therefore, the harder your work the more money you receive and vise versa)
Cold War Ideology Rock-Paper-Scissors • What economic ideology was enacted while playing the game? Capitalism or communism? • What problems may arise from a capitalistic economy? Now…winners equal out the candy between you and your partner (each person should have three pieces) • Which economic ideology does this represent? • What problems may arise from a capitalistic economy? • Why won’t a capitalistic and communistic economy exist together?
Ticket-out • What are the differences between capitalism and communism?
Broken Promises • Yalta Conference • Stalin promised to hold “free and unfettered” elections in Eastern Europe • He prevented elections in 1945
Varying Aims • Potsdam Conference • Goals included the establishment of the post-war order, ironing peace treaty issues, and countering the effects of the war • Evident three countries had varying aims in Europe
What Should I be able to do? • Summarize the steps the United States took in containing Soviet influence as tensions increased • Describe how the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan further defined and deepened the Cold War in Europe • Explain how conflicts over Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression
Iron Curtain • Iron Curtain • Analogy for divide between the non-communist West and communist East • “An iron curtain has descended across…Europe”—Churchill • Stalin claimed speech was a “call to war”
U.S. Containment Efforts • Truman Doctrine • A U.S. policy of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by communism • Outlined policy of containment • Directed 1st towards Turkey and Greece
U.S. Containment Efforts • Marshall Plan • Program developed by Secretary of State George Marshall • Supplied economic aid to war torn Europe • Ulterior motive?
In what ways does communism appeal to the poor? In this case, those in war ravaged Europe?
Notable Military Alliances • N.A.T.O • Military alliance formed by U.S., Canada, Iceland and 9 European nations • Collective Security—attackone, attack all • First military alliance during peacetime • Warsaw Pact • Military alliance between communist countries in Eastern Europe • Communist response to N.A.T.O
Brief History • Battle between Communist and Nationalists • Communist - Mao Zedong (Tse Dong) • Nationalist - Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek) • Fighting began in 1927 to 1936 • Resumed fighting in 1946 to 1950 • Possible causes for the stop in fighting?
History of Conflict • Japan invade China in 1937. • Civilian death in the millions. • Very cruel and xenophobic. • Stopped initial fighting between KMT and Communist forces. • The enemy of my enemy is my friend. • US support of China against Japan. • US impressed with Chiang (Jeing) and KMT.
Civil War in China Based on the chart above, hypothesize which group won the civil war in China?
Chiang Kai-shek *Born upper class *Educated in Military School *Lead the Koumintang KMT against War Lords, communists, and Japanese
Mao Zedong *Born to wealthy family. *Received formal education and served in military. *Joined KMT, but split off in early 1920’s. *Founded Communist party in China.
Communist Forces 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) Nationalist Forces 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949)