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Chapter 7: Promoting Services and Educating Customers ( Communication )

Services Marketing 7e, Global Edition. Chapter 7: Promoting Services and Educating Customers ( Communication ). Overview of Chapter 7. 1. Role of Marketing Communication s 2. Challenges of Services Communications 3. Marketing Communications Planning 4. The Marketing Communications Mix

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Chapter 7: Promoting Services and Educating Customers ( Communication )

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  1. Services Marketing 7e, Global Edition Chapter 7: PromotingServices and EducatingCustomers (Communication)

  2. Overview of Chapter 7 1. Role of Marketing Communications 2. Challenges of Services Communications 3. Marketing Communications Planning 4. The Marketing Communications Mix 5. Role of Corporate Design 6. Integrating Marketing Communications

  3. 1. Role of Marketing Communications

  4. Specific Roles of Marketing Communications 1.1 Help customer evaluate offerings and highlight differences that matter 1.2 Promote contribution of personnel and backstage operations 1.3 Facilitate customer involvement in production 1.4 Stimulate or dampen demand to match capacity

  5. 1. 1 Help Customers to Evaluate Service Offerings • Position and differentiate service, customers may have difficulty distinguishing one firm from another • Provide tangible clues related to service performance, e.g., 繡上品牌的制服,優等公車公司。Airlines not advertise safety? • Some performance attributes lend themselves better to advertising than others • e.g., ISO 9001, AACSB, FedExis no 1 from J. D. Power

  6. 1. 2 Promote Contributions of Service Personnel • Frontline personnel are central to service delivery in high-contact services • Make the service more tangible and personalized • Backstage, low-contact services, show customers work performed behind the scenes to ensure good delivery, e.g., 透明化:從農場到餐桌,Starbucks, 國宴,萬豪 (Marriott), QRCode一掃就知 • Advertisements must be realistic • Messages help set customers’ expectations

  7. 1. 3 Facilitate Customer Involvement in Production • Customers are actively involved in service production; they need training to perform well. e.g., self-service, 醫院義工,志願服務同學 • Television and videos engage viewer • e.g., Dentists showing patients videos of surgical procedures before surgery, 美白,除毛分兩次做 • Streaming videos on web and podcasts are new channels to reach active customers

  8. 1. 4 Stimulate or Dampen Demand to Match Capacity • Live service performances are time-specific and can’t be stored for resale at a later date • Advertising and sales promotions can change timing of customer use • Examples of demand management strategies: • Reducing usage during peak demand periods, e.g., Friday evening's performance • Stimulating demand during off-peak period, e.g., room upgrades, free breakfasts * 討論:高鐵、和欣可以像餐廳、酒店一樣,尖峰加價,離峰減價?

  9. 2. Challenges of Services Communications

  10. Problems of Intangibility, National Guard (美國國民警衛隊) • Intangibility creates 4 problems: • Generality- Items that comprise a class of objects, persons, events. • Abstractness - No one-to-one correspondence with physical objects. • Non-searchability - Cannot be searched or inspected before purchase. • Mental impalpability - Customers find it hard to grasp benefits of complex, multi-dimensional new offerings.

  11. Overcoming Problems of Intangibility 1. Use tangible cues in advertising, e.g., visualization and comparative advertising for hedonic and utilitarian service, Westin hotel 大廳的小瀑布,文加圖、相片 2. Use metaphors, Tiger Woods, bear traps (consulting firm)

  12. 創意的廣告:創造差異,引起共鳴。商品不易,服務更難!創意的廣告:創造差異,引起共鳴。商品不易,服務更難! • 可口可樂 - 邊界線, 2011 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YeK7_lRcDw&feature=player_detailpage • Iphone - 求婚, 2012 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvIop4tw8go • Audi, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vv-_sfsVUms • 什麼都能快遞 – DHL, 1986https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYWHWJ_UR58

  13. 3. Marketing Communications Planning

  14. Checklist: The “5 Ws” Model • Who is our target audience? • What do we need to communicate and achieve? • How should we communicate this? • Where should we communicate this? • When do communications need to take place?

  15. Target Audience: 3 Broad Categories • Prospects 潛在 • Employ traditional communication mix because prospects are not known in advance • Users • More cost / effective channel utilized, e.g., cross- or up-selling, membership…… • Employees內部顧客 • Shape behavior • Part of internal marketing campaign using company-specific channels

  16. Educational and Promotional Objectives in Service Settings • Create memorable images of specific companies and their brands • Build awareness and interest for unfamiliar service • Compare service favorably with competitors’ offerings • Build preference by communicating strengths and benefits • Reposition service relative to competition • Reduce uncertainty or perceived risk by providing useful info and advice • Encourage trial by offering promotional incentives • Familiarize customers with service processes before use

  17. 4. The Marketing Communications Mix

  18. Sources of Messages Received by Target Audience

  19. Traditional Marketing Channels1/2

  20. Traditional Marketing Channels2/2

  21. Internet Marketing Offers Powerful Opportunities • Supplementtraditional marketing channels at a reasonable cost • Part of an integrated, well-designed communications strategy • Can market through the company’s own website or through online advertising

  22. Website Design Considerations • Used for a variety of communication tasks • Promoting consumer awareness and interest • Providing information and consultation • Facilitating 2-way communication • Stimulating product trial • Enabling customers to place orders • Design should address attributes that affect website “stickiness” • High in quality content • Ease of use • Quick to download • Frequency of update (系網頁?) • Memorable Web address helps attract visitors to the site

  23. Effective Advertising on Internet: 1. Banner Advertising Placing advertising banners and buttons on portals such as Yahoo and other firms’ websites to draw online traffic to own site. (橫幅廣告) • Easy for advertisers to measure how many visits to its own website are generated by click-throughs • Limitations • Obtaining many exposures does not necessarily lead to increase in awareness, preference, or sales,vs. 固定月租費 • Fraudulent click-throughsdesigned to boost apparent effectiveness, 點擊計價!

  24. Effective Advertising on Internet: 2. Search Engine Advertising let advertisers know exactly what consumer wants through their keyword search • Target relevant messages directly to desired consumers • Advertising options: • Pay for targeted placement of ads to relevant keyword searches • Sponsor a short text message with a click-through link • Buy top rankings in the display of search results, 競價排名的搜尋方式! e.g., Google "mba", 百度"滑膜肉瘤"

  25. Messages Transmitted through Service Delivery Channels

  26. Messages Originating from Outside the Organization • Word of Mouth (WOM)口碑 • Recommendations from other customers viewed as more credible • Strategies to stimulate positive WOM: • Creating exciting promotions that get people talking about firm’s great service, e.g., 雲朗觀光君品酒店 新春財神驚喜禮物 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-H0VThazok • Offering promotions that encourage customers to persuade others, e.g., 三人同行, 一人免費。65歲以上當月生日,需有人陪。 • Developing referral incentive schemes, e.g., 花旗推薦禮 • Referencing other purchasers,Presenting testimonials, Blogs, Twitter (FB, Line , WeChat), Media coverage • 電影置入性行銷

  27. Ethical Issues in Communication • Poor internal communications between operations and marketing personnel concerning level of service performance • Deliberately exaggeratedpromises to secure sales • Deceptive promotions • Unwanted intrusion by aggressive marketers into people’s personal lives (privacy), 凡走過必留下痕跡!

  28. 5. Role of Corporate Design

  29. Strategies for Corporate Design1/2 • Many service firms employ a unified and distinctive visual appearance for all tangible elements • e.g., Logos, uniforms, physical facilities • Use of color • Use of trademarked symbol as primary logo, with name secondary • McDonald’s “Golden Arches”

  30. Strategies for Corporate Design2/2 • International companies need to select designs carefully to avoid conveying a culturally inappropriate message, e.g., 港龍航空 • Easily recognizable corporate symbols important for international marketers in markets where: • Local language is not written in Roman Script • Significant portion of population is illiterate 溝通:文不如表,表不如圖

  31. 6. Developing An Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Strategy • IMC ties together and reinforces all communications to deliver a strong brand identity • Communications in different media should form part of a single, overall message about the service firm

  32. Summary • Marketing communications adds value through its content • Overcome problems of intangibility – use metaphors to communicate value proposition • Communication planning involves knowing (5Ws) • Marketing communications originate from within the organization through production and marketing channels

  33. Summary • Service delivery channels include • Service outlets • Front-line employees • Self-service delivery points • Customer training • Marketing communications originating from outside organization include • Word of mouth • Blogs, Twitter (FB, Line, WeChat), Media coverage • Corporate design strategies are part and parcel of communication mix (coordinate)

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