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  1. HEDGE FUNDS An Introduction to

  2. Presentation Outline • What Is a Hedge Fund? • A Brief History of Hedge • Hedge Fund Strategies • Measures of Risk • Performance Measures • Downside Protection Dr. Eddie Wei

  3. Traditional Mutual Funds Governed by Investment Company Act of 1940 Available to most investors Low minimum $ requirement Transparent operations Heavily advertised Mostly long only strategies Active versus passive No or low leverage Relative performance Compared to an benchmark index Hedge Funds Escaped ICA1940 3(c)1 99 “accredited investors” or less National Securities Market Improvement Act of 1996- 3(c)7 500 “qualified purchasers” or less No transparency Cannot advertise Alternative investment strategies High leverage Absolute performance Hedge Funds vs Traditional Mutual Funds Dr. Eddie Wei

  4. Hedge Fund History • Alfred Winslow Jones established the first hedge fund in 1949. He used two techniques, leverage and short-selling, to protect his portfolio during market downturns. • Jones believed stock selection was the key to performance, regardless market direction. • Jones was very successful, and established hedge fund fee structures that are still largely used today-keeping 20% profits for himself. • Wall Street took notice and many money managers launched their own hedge funds. Unfortunately, many of these managers strayed from Jones’ original concepts and used leverage without short selling. As a result, when the market fell, these funds suffered tremendous loss and gave hedge funds a reputation of being high-risk investments. • In the late 1970s, hedge funds began to attract positive attention as high profile managers like Julian Robertson and George Soros posted extraordinary long term returns. • Greenwich Alternative Investments (GAI) has been collecting and analyzing hedge fund data for more a decade. Dr. Eddie Wei

  5. Growth and Composition Dr. Eddie Wei

  6. Growth and Composition Dr. Eddie Wei

  7. Hedge Fund Strategies • Market Neutral Group • Equity Market Neutral • Event-Driven • Distressed securities • Merger arbitrage • Special situations • Market Neutral Arbitrage • Convertible arbitrage • Fixed income arbitrage • Statistical arbitrage Dr. Eddie Wei

  8. Hedge Fund Strategies • Long/Short Equity Group • Aggressive Growth • Opportunistic • Short Selling • Value • Directional Trading Group • Emerging Markets • Income • Multi-strategy Dr. Eddie Wei

  9. Equity Market Neutral • The manager invests similar amounts of capital in securities both long and short, maintaining a portfolio with low net market exposure. Long positions are taken in securities expected to rise in value while short positions are taken in securities expected to fall in value. These securities may be identified on various bases, such as the underlying company's fundamental value, its rate of growth, or the security's pattern of price movement. Due to the portfolio's low net market exposure, performance is insulated from market volatility. Dr. Eddie Wei

  10. Event-Driven • The manager focuses investment activities on significant catalyst-type events, such as spin-offs, mergers and acquisitions, bankruptcy reorganizations, recapitalizations and share buybacks. Some managers who employ Event-Driven trading strategies may shift the majority weighting between Merger Arbitrage and Distressed Securities, while others may take a broader scope. Typical trades and instruments used may include long and short common and preferred stocks, debt securities, options and credit default swaps. Leverage may be employed by some managers. Dr. Eddie Wei

  11. Event-Driven • Distressed Securities - The manager invests in the debt and/or equity of companies having financial difficulty. Such companies are generally in bankruptcy reorganization or are emerging from bankruptcy or appear likely to declare bankruptcy in the near future. Because of their distressed situations, the manager can buy such companies' securities at deeply discounted prices. The manager stands to make money on such a position should the company successfully reorganize and return to profitability. Also, the manager could realize a profit if the company is liquidated, provided that the manager had bought senior debt in the company for less than its liquidation value. "Orphan equity" issued by newly reorganized companies emerging from bankruptcy may be included in the manager's portfolio. The manager may take short positions in companies whose situations he deems will worsen, rather than improve, in the short term. Dr. Eddie Wei

  12. Event-Driven • Merger Arbitrage- The manager will take positions in companies undergoing “special situations”; for example, when one firm is to be acquired by another, or is preparing for a reorganization or spin-off. A frequent trade is “long the acquiree, short the acquirer.” • Special Situations- The manager invests both long and short, in stocks and/or bonds which are expected to change in price over a short period of time due to an unusual event. Such events include corporate restructurings (e.g. spin-offs, acquisitions), stock buybacks, bond upgrades, and earnings surprises. This strategy is also known as event-driven investing. Dr. Eddie Wei

  13. Market-Neutral Arbitrage • The manager seeks to exploit specific inefficiencies in the market by trading a carefully hedged portfolio of offsetting long and short positions. By pairing individual long positions with related short positions, market-level risk is greatly reduced, resulting in a portfolio that bears a low correlation and low beta to the market. The manager may focus on one or several kinds of arbitrage, such as convertible arbitrage, risk (merger) arbitrage, capital structure arbitrage or statistical arbitrage. The paired long and short securities are related in different ways in each of these different kinds of arbitrage but in each case, the manager attempts to take advantage of pricing discrepancies and/or projected price volatility involving the paired long and short security. Dr. Eddie Wei

  14. Market-Neutral Arbitrage • Convertible Arbitrage - This strategy typically involves buying and selling different securities of the same issuer (e.g. the common stock and convertibles) and “working the spread” between them. The manager buys one form of security he believes to be undervalued (usually the convertible bond) and sells short another security (usually the stock) of the same company. • Fixed Income Arbitrage - The manager takes offsetting positions in fixed income securities and their derivatives in order to exploit interest rate-related opportunities. These fixed income securities are often backed by residential mortgages; i.e., mortgage-backed securities. Dr. Eddie Wei

  15. Market-Neutral Arbitrage • Other Arbitrage - may include managers utilizing various arbitrage strategies, including but not limited to capital structure arbitrage, credit arbitrage, multi strategy arbitrage, options arbitrage, and Regulation D arbitrage. • Statistical Arbitrage - The manager uses quantitative criteria to choose a long portfolio of temporarily undervalued stocks and a roughly equal-sized short portfolio of temporarily overvalued stocks. Trades tend to be short-term and the overall portfolio is usually neutral in terms of various risk characteristics (beta, sector exposure, etc.). “Pairs trading” is a common form of statistical arbitrage. Dr. Eddie Wei

  16. Long/Short Equity Group • Aggressive Growth - A primarily equity-based strategy whereby the manager invests in companies experiencing or expected to experience strong growth in earnings per share. The manager may considers a company's business fundamentals and/or technical factors, such as stock price momentum. Companies in which the manager invests tend to be micro, small, or mid-capitalization in size rather than mature large-capitalization companies. These companies are often listed on (but are not limited to) the NASDAQ. Managers employing this strategy generally utilize short selling to some degree, although a substantial long bias is common. Dr. Eddie Wei

  17. Long/Short Equity Group • Opportunistic- Rather than consistently selecting securities according to the same strategy, the manager's investment approach changes over time to better take advantage of current market conditions and investment opportunities. Characteristics of the portfolio, such as asset classes, market capitalization, etc., are likely to vary significantly from time to time. The manager may also employ a combination of different approaches at a given time. Dr. Eddie Wei

  18. Long/Short Equity Group • Short Selling- The manager maintains a consistent net short exposure in his portfolio, meaning that significantly more capital supports short positions than is invested in long positions. Unlike long positions, which one expects to increase in value, short positions are taken in those securities the manager anticipates will decrease in value. In order to short sell, the manager borrows securities from a prime broker and immediately sells them on the market. The manager later repurchases these securities, ideally at a lower price than he sold them for, and returns them to the broker. Short selling managers typically target overvalued stocks; characterized by prices they believe are too high given the fundamentals of the underlying companies. Dr. Eddie Wei

  19. Long/Short Equity Group • Value- A primarily equity-based strategy whereby the manager focuses on the price of a security relative to the intrinsic value of the underlying business. The manager takes long positions in stocks that he believes are undervalued. The manager takes short positions in stocks he believes are overvalued. As the market comes to better understand the true value of these companies, the manager anticipates the prices of undervalued stocks in his portfolio will rise while the prices of overvalued stocks will fall. The manager often selects stocks for which he can identify a potential upcoming event that will result in the stock price changing to more accurately reflect the company's intrinsic worth. Dr. Eddie Wei

  20. Directional Trading Group • Futures - Managers strive to be profitable in any type of economic climate since they have the flexibility to go long (buy in anticipation of rising prices) or "short" (sell in anticipation of declining prices). They can be classified as systematic, discretionary or a combination of the two. Collectively, the performance of Futures managers has a relatively low correlation to many other strategies. • Macro - The manager constructs his portfolio based on a top-down view of global economic trends, considering macro factors such as interest rates, inflation, etc. Rather than considering how individual corporate securities may fare, the manager seeks to profit from changes in the value of entire asset classes. For example, the manager may hold long positions in the U.S. dollar and Japanese equity indices while shorting the Euro and U.S. treasury bills. • Market Timing - The manager attempts to predict the short-term movements of various markets and, based on those predictions, moves capital from one segment to another in order to capture market gains and avoid market losses. While a variety of investment categories may be used, the most typical ones are various mutual funds and money market funds. Market timers focusing on these mutual funds are sometimes referred to as mutual fund switchers. Dr. Eddie Wei

  21. Specialty Strategies Group • Emerging Markets- The manager invests in securities issued by businesses and/or governments of countries with less developed economies that have the potential for significant future growth. Examples include the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). This strategy is defined purely by geography. The manager may invest in any asset class (e.g., equities, bonds, currencies) and may construct his portfolio using any strategies. • Income- The manager invests primarily in yield-producing securities, such as bonds, with a focus on current income. Other strategies (e.g. distressed securities, market neutral arbitrage, and macro) may heavily involve fixed-income securities trading as well; this category does not include those managers whose portfolios are best described by one of those other strategies. • Multi-Strategy- The manager typically utilizes two or three specific, pre-determined investment strategies. Although the relative weighting of the chosen strategies may vary over time, each strategy plays a significant role in portfolio construction. Managers may choose to employ Multi-Strategy approach in order to better diversify their portfolios and/or to more fully use their range of portfolio management skills and philosophies. Dr. Eddie Wei

  22. Measures of Risk • Annualized Volatility - Standard deviation is a measure of how dispersed the investment’s returns are from its arithmetic mean. It is derived by calculating the square root of the difference of the returns of the investment from its arithmetic mean. Volatility has historical precedence as one of the most commonly used risk measures.   • Downside Deviation – It is the same as volatility, except downside deviation only measures the volatility of the investment returns that fall below the investor’s defined minimum acceptable return. For example, if the minimum acceptable return is 5%, the downside deviation would only measure the volatility of the returns falling below 5%. Investors prefer upside over downside volatility.   • Drawdown - A drawdown occurs when an investment’s price falls below its last peak (high-water mark). Drawdown measures the investment’s cumulative drop in price from its previous high-water mark as a percentage of the peak price. Investors look at various statistics related to the measure of time regarding a drawdown. How long did it take to recover? (The period between the trough and the recapturing peak is called the recovery.) What was the average length of time a drawdown occurred? (This is called the length of the drawdown.) What is the worst drawdown? (This is the maximum drawdown and represents the greatest peak to trough decline over the life of the investment.) Dr. Eddie Wei

  23. Measures of Risk • Skewness – A return distribution that is not symmetrical is called skewed. The skewness for a normal distribution is zero.   • Positively skewed distribution - characterized by many small losses and a few extreme gains and has a long tail on its right side. Relative to the mean return, positive skewness amounts to limited, though frequent, downside compared to a somewhat unlimited, but less frequent upside.   • Negatively skewed distribution - characterized by many small gains and a few extreme losses and has a long tail on its left side. Relative to the mean return, negative skewness amounts to a limited, though frequent, upside compared with a somewhat unlimited, but less frequent downside. Dr. Eddie Wei

  24. Measures of Risk • Kurtosis -Kurtosis characterizes the relative ‘peakedness’ or flatness of an investment’s return distribution compared with the normal distribution. The higher the kurtosis, the more peaked the return distribution is; the lower the kurtosis, the more rounded the return distribution is. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of 3. • Value at Risk (VaR) -Unlike other risk metrics such as volatility that measure historical risk, VaR quantifies market risk while it is being taken. It measures the odds of losing money but does not indicate certainty. Dr. Eddie Wei

  25. Performance Measures • Alpha measures excess return, relative to a representative benchmark. It is common to compare a manager’s performance to that of a risk-free investment (usually a Treasury bill) or to a benchmark that represents the market in which the fund participates such as the Greenwich Global Hedge Fund Index. Alpha = Fund Return– Benchmark Return For example, if a fund had an alpha of 2.0, it would have produced a return that was two percentage points higher than the benchmark. Dr. Eddie Wei

  26. Performance Measures • Beta measures the risk of a fund by measuring the volatility of its past returns in relation to the returns of a benchmark. For example, a fund with a beta of .7 versus the S&P 500 Index has experienced gains and losses that are 70% of the S&P 500 Index’s changes. A fund with a beta of 1.0 is expected to follow the moves of the index. Dr. Eddie Wei

  27. Performance Measures • Sharpe Ratio measures return per unit of risk. The higher the Sharpe Ratio, the better the fund’s historical risk-adjusted performance. It is calculated as return minus the risk free rate divided by standard deviation: Dr. Eddie Wei

  28. Performance Measures • Sortino Ratio measures return per unit of ‘bad’ volatility by replacing the denominator in the Sharpe Ratio (standard deviation) with downside deviation. It provides a measure of the fund’s performance without penalizing it for upward swings in return. A large Sortino Ratio indicates a low risk of large losses occurring. • Treynor Index is a helpful measurement of the fund’s excess return from each unit of systematic risk. It measures the fund’s excess return (fund’s rate of return minus the risk free rate of return) per unit of risk using beta as the measure of risk as opposed to the standard deviation of the fund’s returns. Dr. Eddie Wei

  29. Hedge Fund Diversification Benefits Dr. Eddie Wei

  30. Downside Protection-historical facts Dr. Eddie Wei

  31. Downside Protection-historical facts Dr. Eddie Wei

  32. Downside Protection-historical facts Dr. Eddie Wei