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Domain 1 Cells 18%

Domain 1 Cells 18%

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Domain 1 Cells 18%

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  1. Domain 1Cells18% 1

  2. Focus Standards SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction. b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids). d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).

  3. The principles of cell theory • One of the first unifying concepts developed in Biology • All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. • All cells come from pre-existing cells and are produces by other living cells • The cell is the most basic unit of life, structure, function, and organization in all organisms.

  4. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: Bacterial Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell 4

  5. Number of Cells Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize 5

  6. Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic • Prokaryotes include bacteria & lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles • Eukaryotes include most other cells & have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (plants, fungi, & animals) 6

  7. Prokaryotes Nucleoid region contains the DNA • Cell membrane & cell wall • Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteinsin their cytoplasm 7

  8. Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: • Nucleus • Cell Membrane • Cytoplasm with organelles 8

  9. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Animal Cell Plant Cell 9

  10. Organelles Very small size Can only be observed under a microscope Have specific functions Found throughout cytoplasm 10

  11. Organelles Found in Cells Examples of Organelles include: Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) – canals for movement Golgi Bodies – wrap & export proteins Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Lysosomes – digests & gets rid of wastes Ribosomes – makes proteins 11

  12. Ribosomes

  13. Organelles • Ribosomes-protein synthesis. Made protein and rRNA. Most are on Rough ER and the rest float free. Ribosomes on Rough ER

  14. Golgi Apparatus

  15. Golgi Bodies • Stacks of flattened sacs • Have a shipping side & a receiving side • Receive & modify proteins made by ER • Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends Transport vesicle 15

  16. Lysosomes

  17. Lysosome • Contain digestive enzymes • Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells • Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) 17

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum

  19. Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT 19

  20. Mitochondria

  21. Cell Powerhouse Mitochondrion( mitochondria ) Rod shape Site of Cellular respiration 21

  22. In Animal Cells: Mitochondria Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP 22

  23. Structure of the Cell Membrane 23

  24. Surrounding the Cell Cell membrane Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Made of protein and phospholipids Selectively permeable 24

  25. Cell or Plasma Membrane Cell membrane Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable 25

  26. Cytoplasm

  27. Cytoplasm of a Cell Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Cytosol is viscous, semitransparent fluid Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place 27

  28. More on Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs Examples: chloroplast & mitochondrion 28

  29. Nucleolus • Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli • Inside nucleus • Disappears when cell divides • Makes ribosomes that make proteins 29

  30. Control Organelle Nucleus Controls the normal activities of the cell Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes 30

  31. More on the Nucleus Nucleus Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes Genes control cell characteristics 31

  32. Cilia and Flagella

  33. Plant Cell Organelles Chloroplast Contain the green pigment chlorophyll Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) Process called photosynthesis 33

  34. Plant Cell Cell wall Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable 34

  35. Plant Cell Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers Strong and rigid Found in plant cells Cell wall 35

  36. Plant Cell Cell wall Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell 36

  37. Plant Cell Organelles Vacuole Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments 37

  38. Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Guard Cells root hair Root Hair Cell 38

  39. Animal cell vacuole cytoplasm No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy nucleus mitochondrion cell membrane glycogen granule 39

  40. Animal Cell Organelles • Near the nucleus • Paired structures • Help cell divide 40

  41. Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell Amoeba red blood cell muscle cell sperm cheek cells nerve cell Paramecium 41

  42. Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria 42

  43. Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size Relatively larger in size Irregular shape Regular shape No cell wall Cell wall present 43

  44. Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells Animal cells Plant cells Vacuole small or absent Large central vacuole Glycogen as food storage Starch as food storage Nucleus at the center Nucleus near cell wall 44

  45. The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell Spongy Mesophyll Cell Air Space Stoma 45

  46. Macromolecules&Enzymes 46

  47. Organic Compounds • Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. • Macromolecules are large organic molecules. 47

  48. Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. • Monomers are the individual subunits. • Polymers are made of many monomers.

  49. Macromolecules • Large organic molecules. • Also called POLYMERS. • Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. • Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) 49

  50. Carbohydrates(Sugar) 50