Chapter 12 Project Communication and Documentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 12 Project Communication and Documentation

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  1. Chapter 12Project Communication and Documentation

  2. Learning Objectives • Suggestions for enhancing personal communications • Effective listening • Various types of project meetings • Formal project presentations • Project reports • Project documentation 2 2 2

  3. Real World Example • Vignette: Three Words to the Wise: Communicate, Communicate, Communicate • You can’t sell project management – or yourself – without good communication skills. • The number one skill that companies are looking for is simply good communication skills. • With poor communications projects are doomed to fail. • Your ability to communicate effectively is perhaps the single most determinant of your success. 3 3 3

  4. Real World Example • Vignette: Learning to Listen • Effective listening can make the difference between success and failure. • There are two types of people: talkers and listeners. • The following are categories of ineffective listeners: Chatterboxes, Star Trekkers, Appeasers, Wanderers, Nervous Nellies, and Bafflers. • When you listen you learn and you make better decisions.

  5. Personal Communication • Can occur through words or nonverbal behavior. • Can be face to face or use some other medium. • Can be oral or written. 4 4

  6. Oral Communication • Provides a forum for discussion. • Body language and tone are important. • Body language can be used by the listener to give feedback to the speaker. • Body language can be positive or negative. 5 5

  7. Oral Communication (Cont.) • Awareness of other cultures’ customs is important. • One must not to use offensive remarks. • Oral communication should be straightforward. • The timing of oral communication is important. 6

  8. Written Communication • Carried out through internal memos and external letters. • Are ways to efficiently communicate with a group. • May be appropriate as a follow-up to a face-to-face conversation or a phone call. • Should be used mostly to inform, confirm, and request. • Should be clear and concise. 7

  9. Effective Listening • The heart of communication is not words, but understanding. • Not only to be understood, but also to understand. • Half of making communication effective is listening. 8

  10. Common Barriers to Effective Listening • Pretending to listen • Distractions • Bias and closed-mindedness • Impatience • Jumping to conclusions 9

  11. Improving Listening Skills • Focus on the person talking. • Engage in active listening. • Ask questions. • Don’t interrupt. 10

  12. Types of Project Meetings • Status review meetings • Problem-solving meetings • Technical design review meetings 11

  13. Status Review Meetings • Usually led or called by the project manager. • The primary purposes are to inform, to identify problems, and to identify action items. • Should be held on a regularly scheduled basis. 12

  14. Status Review Meetings Subjects for Discussion • Accomplishments since last meeting • Cost, schedule, and work: • Scope • Status • Trends • Forecasts • Variances 13

  15. Status Review MeetingsSubjects for Discussion (Cont.) • Corrective actions • Opportunities for improvement • Action item assignment 14

  16. Problem-Solving Meetings: The Process • Develop a problem statement. • Identify potential causes of the problem. • Gather data and verify the most likely causes. • Identify possible solutions. • Evaluate the alternative solutions. • Determine the best solution. • Revise the project plan. • Implement the solution. • Determine if the problem has been solved. 15

  17. Technical Design Review Meetings • A preliminary design review meeting • A final design review meeting 16

  18. Effective Meetings Before the Meeting • Determine: • whether a meeting is really necessary. • the purpose of the meeting. • who needs to participate in the meeting. • Distribute an agenda. • Prepare visual aids or handouts. • Make room & visual aid arrangements. 17

  19. Effective Meetings During the Meeting • Start the meeting on time. • Designate a note-taker. • Review the purpose and the agenda. • Facilitate—don’t dominate. • Summarize the results at the end. • Do not overrun the scheduled meeting time. • Evaluate the meeting process. 18

  20. Effective Meetings After the Meeting • Publish the meeting results within 24 hours after the meeting. • The summary document should be concise. • It should confirm decisions that were made and list the action items. 19

  21. Preparing for a Presentation • Determine the purpose of the presentation • Know the audience. • Make an outline. • Use simple language. • Prepare notes or a final outline to use during the presentation. 20

  22. Preparing for a Presentation (Cont.) • Practice, practice, practice. • Prepare visual aids and test them. • Make copies of handout materials. • Request the audiovisual equipment well in advance. • Go into the meeting room when it’s empty and get a feel for the surroundings. 21

  23. Delivering a Presentation • Expect a bit of nervousness. • Know the first two or three sentences of your presentation. • Talk to the audience, not at it. • Speak clearly and confidently. • Use appropriate animation. • Do not stand in front of your visual aids. 22

  24. Delivering a Presentation (Cont.) • Build interest in your presentation. • Keep to the key points in your outline. • Know your closing lines. • Allow time for interaction with the audience. • When responding to questions, be sincere, candid, and confident. 23

  25. Types of Project Reports • Progress reports • Final report 24

  26. Progress Reports • May include: • Accomplishments since prior report. • Current status of project performance. • Progress toward resolution of problems. • Planned corrective actions. • Problems or potential problems. • Milestones expected to be reached during next reporting period. 25

  27. Final Report • May include: • Customer’s original need. • Original project objective. • Degree to which the original project objective was met. • Brief description of the project. • Future considerations. • A list of all deliverables provided to the customer. 26

  28. Preparing Useful Reports • Make your reports concise. • Write as you would speak. • Put the most important points first. • Use graphics where possible. • Pay as much attention to the format of the report as to the content. 27

  29. Project Documentation and Controlling Changes • Many other documents may be created. • Revisions can result from changes initiated by the customer or by the project team. • Some changes are trivial; others are major. • Various project documents will be revised to incorporate changes. • Note when the revision was made and by whom on all documents. • It is important to distribute updated documents in a timely manner. 28