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Nationalism and Imperialism

Nationalism and Imperialism

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Nationalism and Imperialism

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  1. Nationalism and Imperialism -Key Concepts-

  2. I. Nationalism • Its Cultural Roots • Revival of National Languages • Special National Mission • The Decline of Romantic Nationalism • Tough-Minded Realism after 1848

  3. I. Nationalism (cont) • Tough-Minded Realism after 1848 --The Cultural and Intellectual Climate --State-focused politics --The Dominance of “Realpolitik”—expedience and power • Creation of the Modern Nation-State System, often through war

  4. II. Germany: A Case Study • Prevailing Conservatism in 1850 -- “Junkers” --Romantic vision of war --Parliament rejected the Military Budget of 1862

  5. II. Germany: A Case Study (cont) • “Realpolitik Personified”: Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) --Background --Flexible and Pragmatic --Hated Liberalism, Democracy and Socialism --Manipulated Liberalism and Socialism to increase the power of the Prussian state

  6. II. Germany: A Case Study (cont) • Steps toward unification of Germany --Austro-Prussian War (1866) --Battle of Sadowa --New North German Confederation --Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) --Releases Nationalistic frenzy --Upsets European Balance of Power

  7. III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism • Competition pursued in almost all areas of activity • Each nation refused to recognize any interests other than its own • Each nation was determined to prove its inherent historic superiority

  8. III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism (cont) • International Application of Social Darwinism • Remaining Nationalistic “Hot Spots” --Russia and the Crimean War (1853-1856) --Sergei Witte and modernization --Ireland and Home Rule

  9. IV. Imperialism • Anti-imperialist sentiment before the 1870’s • Mostly economic penetration before this point • Assumption: Costs exceed profits from colonialism • Colonies would sooner or later demand independence • Countries absorbed with domestic turmoil

  10. IV. Imperialism (cont) • The Great Age of Imperialism (1880-1914) --Africa --South Pacific Islands --Southeast Asia --China --Central Asia

  11. V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm • Missionary Activity and the Anti-Slavery Movement --Dr. David Livingstone • Scientific Curiosity • A New Breed of Adventurers --Carl Peters

  12. V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm (cont) --Cecil Rhodes --Boer War (1899-1902) • International Prestige through a Darwinian Struggle • National Security and Naval Bases --Alfred T. Mahan

  13. VI. Economic Motivations for Imperialistic Enthusiasm • Belief that new markets must be found to prevent financial downturns --revived mercantilism • Source of Raw Materials • Target for Excess Capital • Economic Benefits of Imperialism were far less beneficial than assumed

  14. VI. Economic Motivations (cont) • European countries did not invest primarily in colonies --Only 10% of French investments in their colonies—only 5% for the Germans • Trade followed the same pattern --Only 25% of British Trade with its colonies—only 11% for the French and .4% for the Germans • European countries did the greatest volume of business with each other • Most important economic motivation: raw materials • Economics was thus an illusory stimulus

  15. VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism • Huge Power Gap between European and non-European states -- “Gunboat Diplomacy” --Battle of Omdurman (1898) --The Second Opium War (1856-1860)

  16. VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism (cont) • European Rivalries intensified by imperialism • India: The Pride of British Imperialism • The Growth of Popular Imperial Literature --Rudyard Kipling --Gunga Din --Ernest Psichari

  17. VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism • Social Darwinism: “Fit” versus “Unfit” Races • “The White Man’s Burden” • The Benefits of this “Burden” --sati • Disrespect and condescension toward indigenous peoples and cultures

  18. VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism (cont) • The Congo Free State in Africa: A Personal Fief for King Leopold II of Belgium (1884-1908) • Exploitation of colonial possessions --The Dutch “Culture System”

  19. IX. Criticism of Imperialism • The Marxist Critique of Imperialism --J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism (1902) • Need of the Rich to Drain off Surplus Capital • Opportunity to Divert Attention from the need for Domestic Reform

  20. IX. Criticism of Imperialism (cont) • Moral condemnation of Imperialism --Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness --George Orwell, Burmese Days (1933) --British Raj -- “one long struggle not to be laughed at.” • Failure of the Western Liberal Tradition

  21. X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism • Initial Response: Attempt to Drive the Imperialists away • “Traditionalists” who continue to resist in any way that they can • “Modernizers” who learned western ways in order to later use them against imperialists

  22. X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism (cont) • Example of Modernizers: Meiji in Japan • Traditionalists and Modernizers struggled first with each other • Imperial Rule was built on a foundation of sand --Ho Chi Minh --Liberalism, Nationalism and Marxist Socialism as colonial weapons