Transgenic Animals By: Amber, Catherine, Kayla, Lauren
What is a transgenic animal? • A transgenic animal is animal whose chromosomes have been changed to carry the genes of other organisms.
Howare(they) transgenic animals made? • There are three main ways to produce transgenic animals: microinjection, blastocyst injection, and the help of a retrovirus.
Microinjection: • This involves injecting a trangene, the gene used to create a transgenic animal, into a fertilized egg. • There is little ability to determine where the transgenic is located and whether it will survive. • Because of this, most eggs do not survive or do not have the transgene, but between 1% and 30% of the eggs injected can produce a live transgenic animal.
Blastocyst Injection: • This involves placing the transgene into an embryonic stem cell or ES cell. • ES cells are cells that are able to develop into all types of tissues. • The cells are injected into blastocysts, which is an early stage of development. The injected ES cells become part of the animal and the animal becomes a mixture of transgenic and original cells.
Help of a Retrovirus: • A retrovirus is a virus that can insert itself into a host’s chromosomes. • This virus is inserted into the cells. • The animals that contain the virus must breed to produce a transgenic animal.
Why are (they)transgenic animals being made? • Transgenic animals are being made to help economic traits, be used as disease models, and help in medical research.
Economic Traits: • Scientists created cattle to produce milk containing certain human proteins which may help in the treatment of emphysema. • It also helps in breeding. Farmers can produce transgenic animals that have the needed traits for doing a specific job.
Disease Models: • Scientists are creating animals with specific human diseases and cancers, so that they can study the affects it has on the body. They hope this will help them find a cure for the different diseases and cancers.
Medical Research: • Every year people die because of lack of a replacement heart,liver, or kidney. • Transgenic pigs may be able to supply these organs. • Research is trying to find a way to remove a pig protein and replace it with a human protein.
Collageon Photostory Dolly
Credits • Info from: • Transgenic Animals by Dag Marcus Eide • The Virtual Embryo • Action Bioscience • Pictures from: • RNC Home • Green Florescent Protein • Belligerati • Living the Scientific Life • Geocities • Matching Making • Zoological Sciences • Gurdon Institute • Guelph • Pittsburg Development Center • Papilio • EnviroZine • 2 Day Blog • University Animal Care • BBC