The European Multinational and Multicultural Identity Assets and tensions, immigration and integration policies
Overview, part I • European Identity • Concepts of identity • European Values and the EU • Models of looking at Europe • Europe as a family of nations • Constitutional patriotism • Europe as a space of encounters
Overview, part II • From immigration to integration • Migration history • Policy • Views towards the future • Integration and effects of immigration • Questions
EuropeanIdentity • Important: one of the three basic conditions for membership (next to democratic status and respect for human rights). • But very elusive • Geographically elastic • Linguistically varied: 23 languages • Religiously diverse, Cf. work on the Consititutional treaty, 2004 • Historically not clear (more clashes than harmony) • No coherent view on the European ‘quality’ of the neighbors • …
The first of May 2004 marked an important date in the history of Europe as a political, geographic, and social entity. Ten European countries joined the European Union, bringing in their potential and expectations, adding a total population of 75 million people and a territory of 738,000 square kilometers. The EU-25 has 452 million citizens.
Feeling European • Barometer 1999 • Feeling ‘European’ in Luxemburg, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria and Germany • Feeling ‘national’ in UK, Sweden, Funland, Greece and Denmark • Barometer 2004 • 86 % is proud of their country, 68 % is proud of Europe • But, 49 % feels there is no shared cultural identity
Activity 1 • Surf to the Eurobarometer site and check how Europeans today feel about the Union: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm • How closely do people in your homecountry feel attached to their nation/region? How has this evolved over time?
Identity = Values? • Sharing an essentially similar view on the world? • Discourse: 5 core values: • Democracy • Non-discrimination • Gender equality • Physical and psychological integrity • Respect for cultural diversity and identities
Activity 2 • List five qualities (positive / negative ) that you think are typically European. • Check your list with that of your neighbour. • Keep the list with you to see if it fits with how Europeans see themselves.
Activity 3 • Check the publication “A community of cultures: The European Union and the arts.” on http://ec.europa.eu/publications/booklets/move/31/txt_en.pdf • What do you learn about Europes shared cultural heritage?
Institutionalidentity • Only 4 in 10 feels satisfied with the way democracy works in Europe • They feel they know very little of how the institutions work • 29 % of Europeans feels that 50 years of Union have accomplished little to nothing • In 2004, only 54 % voted in Pariliament elections.
Activity 4 • Let’s talk on how the Europan Union could actively promote this idea of European identity. What actions could be taken? • Read the charta on European Identity: http://www.europa-web.de/europa/02wwswww/203chart/chart_gb.htm. What do you think about the conclusions made there?
Models of looking at Europe:A family of nations • A family of nations: a polity can only be stable if anchored in a common history and culture. Emphasises that European identity has emerged from common movements in religion and philosophy, politics, science and the arts • “Euro-nationalism” that leads to exclusionary policies within European societies (as regards non-European immigrants) and the polarisation of global politics.
Models of looking at Europe: constitutional patriotism • A common political culture, or civic identity, based on universal principles of democracy, human rights, the rule of law etc. expressed in the framework of a common public sphere and political participation. • Artificial distinction between the private and the public, the subjective and the universal / Democracy and human rights are not universal values / Problems related to cultural differences are ignored.
Models of looking at Europe: A space of encounters • A consequence of intensified civic, political and cultural exchanges and cooperation. As identities undergo constant change, “European identity” would be encompassing multiple meanings and identifications and would be constantly redefined through relationships with others. • Overemphasises the ability of people to adapt to a world in flux und underestimates their need for stability. Too much diversity can eventually lead to the loss of identity, orientation and coherence, and therefore undermine democracy and established communities.
Conclusion part I: preconditions for the emergence of a European identity: • Politics: the strengthening of democratic participation at all levels and more democracy at EU level • Education and culture: strengthening of the European dimension in certain subjects (especially history), more focus on language learning, more exchanges etc. • Social and economic cohesion: counteracting social and economic differences
Part II: Migration In 1620, one of 10 people in the Netherlands was foreign born. In a town as Amsterdam, this could be as much as one in four!
Activity 5 • Scan the web for some images on migration. What do these images tell you? What thoughts and feelings do they provoke?
Difficult outset • Unlike the USA, Canada or Australia, no Western European country sees itself as an immigrant society. • Most Europeans still consider mass migration to be the historical exception. Residing in the same place throughout one's life is considered to be normal.
Historical overview • For centuries, European migration patterns consisted mainly of movement around the continent, or away from it. Millions fled religious persecution. Others were driven by hunger and poverty, including impoverished southern Europeans.
Historical overview • 1950-60: Workers arrived in their millions to fill gaps in European labour markets. National policies were fairly liberal . • People from West-indies and India to UK • Migration from southern-european countries to northern-europe • Contacts with Turkey and Maghreb. • The numbers peaked in the early 1960s, creating a net European migration figure which is far higher than today's. These immigrants, mostly non-white, were not expected to stay.
Historical overview • Policies became restrictive from the 1970s on. Satiation of labour market. 1973: Migration stop. • 1980’s: recession. Some possibilities remained: family reunification, studies, seasonal work, …. This left the asylum system to carry the weight of the migration wave. • The 1980s also brought about the accession of the Southern European states Greece, Spain, and Portugal, which faced initial restrictions in the movement of people
Historical overview • 1990’s: Germany (unification and close to Eastern-Europe) had the largest flows of migrants followed by the United Kingdom. • 2000: a number of governments have been revising their policies to take better account of employment and demographic needs. • 2002: Investing in return programmes.
. There are probably between 2 and 3 million undocumented immigrants in Europe - accounting for 10 to 15 per cent of the total population of foreigners. Some estimates say there could be 500,000 a year. There are probably between 2 and 3 million undocumented immigrants in Europe - accounting for 10 to 15 per cent of the total population of foreigners. Some estimates say there could be 500,000 a year.
Activity 6 • Make a sketch of migration histories within your own family. • Plot your families migration history on a map. • Think about why people migrated and what their long term perspective was.
Origin of migrants • 1950-2000: ‘clear’ push and pull factors: • former colonial links, • previous areas of labour recruitment, • ease of entry from neighbouring countries. • In recent years, immigrants have been coming from a wider range of countries and particularly from lower-income countries.
Activity 7 • Describe the make-up of your own community: immigrants, migrants, historical minorities, new minorities…. • Try to define what relates all of them. • Would you define your home-society as diverse or quite homogenous?
Migration and development • The pressure to move from developing countries is being perpetuated by Europe's own policies. The EU's protectionism, agricultural policies and subsidies are all contributing to making life tougher for the developing world, increasing the pressure for people to leave. • Commission principles • Remittances • The involvement of willing diaspora members • Brain circulation and limiting impact of brain drain
Other Problems • Smuggling and trafficking networks -> need for considerable investments • Striking a balance between security and basic rights of individuals. • Relationships with historical minorities and policies aimed at them. p.e. Jewish community Antwerp
Policy • Tampere 1999 • A comprehensive approach that finds a balance between humanitarian and economic admission • Fair treatment of third country nationals: to give them comparable rights and obligations to those of nationals • Development of partnerships with countries of origin including policies of co-development
Policy • 2000 onwards: the emergence of a cross-national European response to immigration, as European Union countries have become more concerned about their common external frontier. • The Hague Programme (2004) • Green Paper (2005) • Policy Plan (2006)
Policy • Communication by Commission 2000, recommending a common approach which should take into account: • The economic and demographic development of the union • The capacity of reception of each member state along with their historical and cultural links with the countries of origin • The situation in the countries of origin and the impact of migration policy on them • The need to develop specific integration policies: based on fair treatment of third-country nationals, the prevention of social exclusion, racism and xenophobia and the respect for diversity
Activity 8 • Read the introduction from the Annual Policy Report on Migration of The European Migration Network: http://www.ind.nl/nl/Images/2007%20Annual%20Policy%20Report%202006%20Synthesis%20Report_tcm5-164185.pdf • What strikes you? • What differences can you see between the various European countries?
A need for migration? • Future immigration to the EU is likely to increase, both as a result of the demand for labour and because of low birth rates in the EU. • Both the UK and Germany have announced schemes to attract skilled immigrant workers.
Some Data • Data from the EU's statistical office shows that between 1975 and 1995 the EU population grew by just over 6%. From 1995 to 2025 however, this growth is expected to almost half to roughly 3.7%. • Another reason is that the population's average age is increasing. The working-age population was 225 million in 1995, and is expected to remain fairly constant at around 223 million in 2025. The striking point, though, is that the over-65 population is anticipated to rise from 15.4% of the EU population in 1995 to 22.4% by 2025. • These population trends are not evenly spread. Population growth has hit record lows in southern European countries.
Approaches to integration • Multicultural: implying tolerance of cultural and religious diversity, robust anti-disrimination legislation and easy acces to citizenship • Social Citizenship: offering a type of quasi membership in the form of full social and economic rights, but restricted acces to full citizenship • Republican: allows easy acces to citizenship but on the understanding that citizens divest themselves of particular ethnic or religious traits in the public spheres
Activity 9 • If you were to design an integration course, what elements would be there? • To get inspired, read the conclusions of chapter 2 in the European Handbook for Integration: http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/doc_centre/immigration/integration/doc/2007/handbook_2007_en.pdf
Goodpractices • Portugal: SOS Migrant • Mentoring of seasonal workers in UK and Catalonia • Intercultural sensitivity training for public service workers • Expanding mediation services (languages, view on health care, religious dialogue..)
Example of integration program: Belgium • Obligatory for all ‘new-comers’: • Adult foreigners centrally registered, -12 months • Except: • EU or Swiss citizens, or their spouses, children and parents • People older then 65 (except in religious functions) • … • Primary program • Basic course Dutch: between 120 and 600 hours • Orientation to the labor market • Social orientation • Secondary program: • Actively searching for work
Unity in diversity • “The construction of a European identity is neglecting the cultural demands of the minorities within the member states and fails to produce a pluralist reading of identity. (…) A multicultural democracy that wants to remain true to itself has to be able to accept difference and diversity within its realm.” (Sami Zemni) 5 times more chance of un-employment 7 times more chance of poverty Drawn back in schooling and higher education
New forms of migration • Commuting (Eastern-Europe): migration will remain temporary for the most part, taking the form of a cross-border commute rather than a permanent settlement. “70 percent of the Polish respondents anticipated working in other Member States for between two months and two years or for intermittent periods between returning home. Only 12 percent of them intended to work for longer than two years and 13 percent expressed a desire to settle permanently in another member state.” • Educational migration: a persistent trend in the pattern of East – West migration. Education in Eastern Europe is not considered to match in full that in Western Europe in terms of resources.
Further reading • www.euractiv.com : identity debates • www.nouvelle-europe.eu : construction of Europe • www.eumap.org : a diverse compilation of articles and opinion pieces on the most topical and important migration issues in Europe. • www.gcim.org: Reports by the Global Commission on International Migration • www.oecd.org • ….