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Knowledge access and sharing An overview of access models

Knowledge access and sharing An overview of access models

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Knowledge access and sharing An overview of access models

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  1. Knowledge access and sharing An overview of access models Fiona Godlee Head of BMJ Knowledge www.clinicalevidence.com

  2. Access to scientific information • How much information (raw data?) • When (before or after peer review?) • To whom (free/paid for?)

  3. Controlling access - IIndustry (and researchers) • Sharing raw data

  4. Data sharing: pros • Efficient use of resources - reuse of datasets to replicate findings or address new questions • Can help to formulate research questions/refine measurement instruments/calculate sample sizes • Facilitates meta-analysis • Allows others to check whether conclusions were justified • Makes fraud more difficult Davey-Smith G. Increasing accessibility of data. BMJ 1994: 308; 1519-20

  5. Data sharing: cons • Practicalities • Misuse of data • Commercial considerations

  6. Data sharing: making it possible • Funders - make grants conditional • Clearing houses • Searchable registers of ongoing and completed projects • Freedom of information act • Journals - make it a requirement (and make it feasible) • Make it a routine part of informed consent for participants • Delamothe T. Whose data are they anyway? BMJ 1996; 312:1241-42

  7. Controlling access - IIJournal editors • Before or after peer review

  8. Controlling access - IIIPublishers • Free or paid for

  9. Access to peer reviewed research An emerging spectrum: • The subscription model • Variants on the subscription model • Models aimed at ameliorating the impact of the subscription model • Open access

  10. Why open access? • Reduces costs of dissemination (more money for science and health care) • Amenable to market forces • Encourages author power • Globally inclusive • Facilitates scientific exchange/discovery • Removes reasons for not building on the entirety of the scientific record • Restores a public good

  11. Journal Journal Journal Journal Article Journal Choice Monopoly Libraries

  12. Spiralling prices • Between 1986 and 1999 • 207% price increase • Brain Research • 1991: £3,713 • 2001: £9,148 • Average number of journal subscriptions across US research libraries dropped by 6% • (Association of Research Libarians)

  13. Spiralling prices • 1999 - 2002 • Global medical publishing sector grew by estimated 20% • revenues $2.69 billion

  14. Spiralling prices ‘I think scientists all over would be shocked to realise what a phenomenally lucrative business scientific publishing can be.’ Nicholas Cozzarelli- editor in chief of the PNAS

  15. Why not open access? • Unproven • Unsustainable • Author power means readers will not be served • Publishers add value • Quality will suffer • There will be fewer good journals • Need additional filters • Societies will no longer be able to support their other valuable activities

  16. The subscription model

  17. Variants on the subscription model • Authors can pay for their article to be open access • Original research open, “value added” content closed • Selected articles free • Archive open/free after a period of time

  18. Models that attempt to ameliorate the impact of the subscription model