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The Biology of Creation

The Biology of Creation

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The Biology of Creation

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  1. The Biology of Creation Studying God’s World (Science) in theLightof His Word (Scripture) Sid Galloway

  2. Bio-Logic In Depth Study of Biblical Biology Chapter Two Chemistry of Life Mr. Galloway Sid Galloway

  3. God is the Alpha & Omega(The Beginning & The End) Genesis 1:1-5 - Day One: “creation” of space, time, matter, and energy - Hebrew term for created = “bara” meaning ex Nihilo, out of nothing. Only God can create out of nothing. Man can only “yatsar” or mold what already exist. - “Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters” (literally in the Hebrew, hovering is “vibrating” as God began the flow of energy throughout the matter He created) Sid Galloway

  4. 2 Peter 3:10-13 • 10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise[end with a big bang], and the elements [literally atoms] will melt with fervent heat [thermonuclear explosion]; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. 11 Therefore, since all these things will be dissolved, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, 12 looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved, being on fire, and the elements will melt with fervent heat [exponential escalation of entropy – the second law of thermodynamics]? 13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells. Sid Galloway

  5. The Final Big Bang Sid Galloway

  6. Section 2-1 Composition of Matter • Matter = anything that occupies space & has mass. • Mass = the quantity of matter an object has. • Weight = the pull of gravity (less weight on the moon). Sid Galloway

  7. Elements = pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter. • Over 100 elements identified, fewer than 30 important to living things. • 90% of mass of living things is composed of four elements (H,O, N, C) • (Examples are 5O2, or O2, or H2, etc.) Note each is only one type of letter. • Atoms = simplest part of an element that retains all the properties • Too small to be observed, so models are used. • (Examples are one atom of C, or H, or O, etc.) Sid Galloway

  8. Periodic Table of Elements Sid Galloway

  9. Compounds = pure substance made up of atoms from two or more elements. • A compound formula has two or more letters. • Water - H2O - is a compound made up of H & O. • The proportions of the each kind of atom are fixed. • Chemical formula shows the kind and proportion (H20) • The physical properties of a compound differ from the elements alone. • H and O are gases, H20 is a liquid. • Tendency of elements to combine depends on the number and arrangement of atoms. • Atom is chemically stable when outermost energy level is filled. • Most atoms are not stable in their natural state, so they tend to react or combine. Sid Galloway

  10. Molecules • Moleculeis the simplest part of a substance retaining all of the properties and can exist in free state. • Examples are sugar C6H12O6, water H2O, oxygenO2, hydrogen H2, etc. • C6H12O6 and H2O are also compounds. • O2 and H2 are not compounds. Sid Galloway

  11. Nucleus = central core of an atom, and most of the mass concentrated there. • Protons = positive electrical charge • Atomic Number = based on number of protons • Neutrons = no charge • Electrons = negatively charged high energy particles with very little mass • Outer shell (level) electrons have more energy • Each level holds certain number: 2, then 8. Sid Galloway

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  14. Chemical Reactions = combining of atoms to become more stable. • Chemical bonds are broken, atoms are rearranged, new bonds are formed. • Covalent Bonds = two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. • Water example: H needs a second electron, O needs two more, so H20. Sid Galloway

  15. Covalent Bonding Animation Sid Galloway

  16. Covalent Bonding Animation Sid Galloway

  17. Sid Galloway

  18. Ionic Bonds = electron transfer to another atom • Salt example: NaCl (Na loses an electron, Cl gains one) • Na becomes positively charged Na+ • Cl becomes negatively charged Cl- • The two atoms now attract each other like a magnet • Ion = an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Sid Galloway

  19. Ionic Bonding Sid Galloway

  20. Ionic Bonding Animation Sid Galloway

  21. Metal Ionic Sea of Electrons • Valence (outer) electrons free float around • Conduct heat & electricity well • All atomic nuclei are “cemented” in place by outer electrons Sid Galloway

  22. Section 2 Energy • Energy = the ability to do work or cause change. • - various forms can be converted (electrical to radiant and heat) • Free Energy = energy in a system available for work, such as cell processes • States of Matter: All atoms are moving or at least vibrating. • solid, liquid, gas are determined by the rate of atom/molecule movement Sid Galloway

  23. Energy and Chemical Reactions: • Reactants = substances that react in a chemical reaction. • Products = the substance (s) that result from the reaction. • Energy Transfer: • Exergonic = net release of free energy • Endergonic = net absorption of free energy • Activation Energy = amount of energy needed to start the reaction • Catalysts = reduce the amount of activation energy needed • Enzymes = an important class of catalysts in living things (can be thousands in an organism) Sid Galloway

  24. Reduction-Oxidation Reactions • Redox Reactions= transfer of electrons between atoms. • Oxidation Reaction = a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming more positive in charge. (Ex: sodium to sodium Na+ ion) • Reduction Reaction = reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming more negatively charged. • (Chlorine to Chloride Cl-ion) Sid Galloway

  25. Section 3 Solutions • Solution = mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance. (Can be liquids, solids, or gases) • Solute = substance dissolved in the solution • Solvent = substance the solute dissolved in Sid Galloway

  26. Concentration = the measurement of the amount of the dissolved solute in a fixed amount of the solution. • (Ex: A 2% saltwater solution = 2 g of salt dissolved in 100 ml of solution). • Saturated Solution = one in which no more solute can dissolve. • Aqueous Solution = water is the solvent, and these are universally important to life. (Ex: sea, ground water, cell fluid, body fluid, blood, etc) Sid Galloway

  27. Acids and Bases (Acidity or Alkalinity) • Dissociation of Water = the breaking apart of a water molecule into two ions of opposite charge. • The force of attraction between water molecules is so strong, that the oxygen atom from one water molecule can actually remove the hydrogen atom from the other water molecule. H20 ↔ H+ + OH- • OH- = hydroxide ion • H+= free hydrogen ion, which after dissociation can react with another water molecule to form: H++ H20 ↔ H30+ • H30+ = hydronium ion Sid Galloway

  28. Dissociation of Water Sid Galloway

  29. Acidity oralkalinity is a measure of the relative amounts of hydronium ions (H30+ ) and hydroxide ions (OH-)dissolved in a solution. • Neutral Solution = equal number of hydroxide ions to hydronium ions. (Ex: Pure Water) Sid Galloway

  30. Sid Galloway

  31. Acid = more hydronium ions (H30+ ) in a solution than hydroxide ions (OH-). • Acids taste sour, and in concentrated forms are corrosive. • HCl (hydrogen chloride gas) dissolved in water. • HCl ↔ H++ Cl- • the free H+ions combine with water molecules to form H30+(hydronium ions). • the result is an acidic solution because it has more H30+ions than OH- ions, Sid Galloway

  32. Sid Galloway

  33. Nitric Acid Burn Sid Galloway

  34. Base = a solution containing more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions. • bases taste bitter, and feel slippery since OH- ions react with oil on skin make soap. • a basic solution is also called an alkaline solution Sid Galloway

  35. Sid Galloway

  36. pH Scale = compares the relative concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions in solution. • the scale ranges from 0 to 14. • Zero (0) is very acidic, (7) is neutral, and (14) is very alkaline. • It is measured on a logarithmic scale so that the change of one unit equals a tenfold change. • pH of 4 has ten times more H30+ions than a solution with a pH of 5, and a pH of 4 has 100 times more H30+ions than a solution with a pH of 6. • pH examples of body solutions: • Acidic (Urine, stomach acid) • Basic (blood, intestinal fluid) Sid Galloway

  37. Sid Galloway

  38. Beware of the DIRECTION of the scale on different charts Sid Galloway

  39. Sid Galloway

  40. Litmus paper = a chemical indicator used to measure or test pH levels (changes color). • Buffers = chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution. Enzymes can only function within a very narrow range of pH, so buffers are used in living systems to control pH. Sid Galloway

  41. Identical Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons Make All Substances Sid Galloway

  42. Identical Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons Make All Substances Sid Galloway

  43. Sin & Chemical Chaos • Adam’s sin led to the escalation of entropy (disorder in the universe – chemically and socially), including mankind’s current struggle against the difficulties now in nature. Sid Galloway

  44. Downward Direction Doubt Disobedience Disorder Difficulty Dysfunction Dishonor of God Sid Galloway

  45. God’s Solution for Safety • How and why should each of us get in order, under the hand of God’s authority. 1 Pet 5:5-9 • Metanoia (repent) = attitude turn of 180o • Trust = submit in faith to His Authority • Obey = walk (stoicheo / march) in faith, following His Word above your own Sid Galloway