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Multimedia Devices. Terms and Definitions. Chapter Objectives. After completing these slides you will: Understand various CD and DVD technologies. Understand the meaning of a CD or DVD’s X factor. Understand how a CD drive works.
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Multimedia Devices Terms and Definitions
Chapter Objectives After completing these slides you will: • Understand various CD and DVD technologies. • Understand the meaning of a CD or DVD’s X factor. • Understand how a CD drive works. • Know the different interfaces used with CD and DVD drives and be able to configure the drive. • Understand the basic operation of a sound card. • Understand the software associated with CD and DVD drive installation. • Be able to install a sound card. • Be able to use various operating system tools to verify drive and sound card installation.
Multimedia Overview • The term multimedia has different meanings to different people because there are so many different types of multimedia devices. These slides focus on the most popular areas and you will find that other devices are similar to install and troubleshoot. • Multimedia devices: • CD and DVD technologies • Sound cards
CD-ROM Drive Overview • CD-ROM terms: • CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) Drive is a device that holds CDs and is used for audio and data files. • CD (Compact Disk) is a disk that holds large amounts of data (628MB and higher), such as audio, video, and software applications.
CD-ROM Drive Speeds • CD-ROM drives operate much slower than hard drives. • CD-ROM drive specifications: • Average Seek Time is the time required for a drive to move randomly about the disk. • Average Access Time is the time required to find and retrieve data on a disk or in memory.
CD-ROM Drive Speeds CD-ROM Transfer Speeds Multimedia – Table # 1
CD-ROM Drive Speeds CD-ROM Access Times Multimedia – Table # 2
CD-ROM Drive Buffers/Cache • Ways to increase CD-ROM data transfers: • Buffer memory located on the CD-ROM drive • Adjust the CD-ROM cache
Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation • Data is stored on a CD with pits and flats. • Pits are indentations along the track of a CD. • Flats are lands that separate the pits in a CD.
Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation Inside a CD-ROM Drive Multimedia – Figure #2
Internal and External CD-ROM Drives • Types of CD-ROM drives • Internal CD-ROM drives using either IDE or SCSI interface • External CD-ROM drives using the SCSI interface
CD-ROM Disk Loading • Methods for inserting a compact disk into a CD-ROM drive: • Tray Loaded is a method to insert a CD or DVD into a drive. They are less expensive but more likely to have lower MTBFs. • MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is the average number of hours before a device fails. • Caddy Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD inserts into a CD drive using a special holder. • Caddy is a holder for a compact disk that inserts into the CD drive. • Slot Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD loads into a slot in the CD drive. This has the disadvantage of disk jams.
CD-ROM Disk Loading CD-ROM Drive with Tray and CD-ROM Caddy Multimedia – Figure #3
CD-R and CD-RW • CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable) is a CD drive that can create a compact disk by writing once to the disk. • UDF (Universal Disk Format) is a CD-R drive standard used by some manufacturers. • DDCD (Double Density CD) is a CD disk format that extends to 1.3GB. Drives that use this specification can also read regular CDs, CD-R disks, and CD-RW disks. • WORM (Write Once-Read Many) is a technology that writes data once to a disk. It is often used to make backups or distribute software.
CD-R and CD-RW • CD-RW (Compact Disk ReWritable) or CD-E is a CD drive that can write data multiple times to a particular disk. • PD (Phase-Change Dual) is a laser technology used to make CD-E and CD-RW disks. • Dye-Polymer is a technology for making CD-E or CD-RW disks by laser-heating the disk surface to produce light reflecting bumps. • MultiRead or MultiRead2 is an OSTA specification that states the CD-RW drive is backward compatible with CD-ROM and CD-R disks.
Magneto-Optical Drives • MO (Magneto-Optical) Drive is a type of drive that uses a special technology for reading and writing multiple times to a compact disk. After the disk is heated by the laser to produce a bump, a magnet applies a charge to the surface.
Structure of a CD • A single CD is 4.8” in diameter and can store about 780 MB of information. It is made out of polycarbonate material that has a single spiral made out of microscopic bumps. A thin layer of Aluminum is then applied over the bumps. A thin layer of acrylic covers the aluminum. • Bumps are 0.5 micron wide and the spiral is separated by 1.6 microns. The spiral starts near the center and ends at the edge. The spiral is about 5 km long. • On a DVD the bumps are 0.32 micron wide and the spiral is separated by 0.74 microns.
DVD-ROM • DVD-ROM is a technology that produces disks with superior audio and video performance and increased storage capacity. • In DVD drives, the MPEG-2 video must be converted, and the decoder is the way to convert the data. • DirectX is a Microsoft DVD technology that integrates multimedia drivers, application code, and 3-D support for audio and video. • Region Code is a setting on a DVD drive or disk that specifies a geographic region.
DVD-ROM DVD Region Codes Multimedia – Table # 5
Decoders • Decoders are used to decompress the video and audio from a DVD. • Hardware Decoder requires a PCI adapter and handles the decoding. • Software Decoder is a type of DVD decoder that puts the burden on the CPU to decode and uncompress the MPEG-2 video data from the DVD.
Other DVD Technologies • Types of DVD Technologies: • DVD-RAM uses a phase technology like CD-RW and allows data to be rewritten on a DVD-RAM disk. • DVD-R uses WORM technology to use one or two sides of the disk. • DVD-RW (DVD-ReWritable) uses 4.7GB disks that can be erased and rewritten to the disk. • DVD+RW (DVD Read and Write) is a drive that can be read from, written to, and holds 3GB.
Blu-ray Drives • Blu-ray – an optical disc technology that uses blue laser technology instead of the red laser technology currently used by CD/DVD drives. • Blu-ray has a higher data transfer rate than DVDs and stores 27GB on a single side disc or 50GB on a dual-side disc. • Blu-ray was developed for high-definition video and data storage.
CD/DVD Drive Interfaces and Connections • Types of CD and DVD Drive Interfaces: • IDE – most common • SCSI • USB • FireWire
Preventive Maintenance for CD and DVD Drives • If the laser lens gets dust, dirt, or moisture on it, the drive may report data or read errors. • Laser Lensor Objective Lens is a special component of the CD-ROM drive that is responsible for reading information from the CD disk.
CD and DVD Drive Installation • CD and DVD Drive Installation Steps: • Install any necessary mounting brackets on the drive. • Set the appropriate master/slave, SCSI ID, or termination for the drive interface. • Set any interrupt, I/O address, or DMA channel. • Attach the appropriate cables to the drive.
CD and DVD Driver Installation • Device Driver is a small piece of software that stays in RAM to allow communication with a piece of hardware. • MSCDEX.EXE is a program provided with DOS and Windows 3.x that assigns a drive letter to the CD-ROM drive. It is included as a line in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. • Device Name is an eight-character name unique for each CD-ROM drive. • CDFS (CD-ROM File System) is the Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP 32-bit protected mode CD drive file system driver
Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems • Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems: • Always use the latest drivers. • Correct any interrupt, DMA channel, and I/O address conflicts. • Verify that the CD or DVD is installed in the drive. • Check power connections, cabling, and configuration settings.
Sound Cards • Sound Card Features: • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used to create synthesized music and found on a sound card. • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a sound format that compresses an audio file and has the extension of MP3. • AAC (Advanced Audio Compression) is a sound file format that provides file compression.
Sound Cards CD Drive with Sound Card Multimedia – Figure # 6
Sound Cards Sound Blaster Live Platinum 5.1 Sound Card Ports Multimedia – Figure # 7
Sound Cards PC Design Symbols Multimedia – Figure # 8
Sound Card Theory of Operation • The sound card must take the analog signal and convert it to a digital format to send the sound into the computer. To convert an analog waveform to 1s and 0s, samples of data are taken. • Frequency Response is the number of samples taken by a sound card. • It is recommended to purchase a PCI sound card that uses a minimum of 16 bits for sampling.
Sound Card Theory of Operation Sound Wave Multimedia – Figure #9
Sound Card Theory of Operation 8-Bit Sampling Multimedia – Figure #10
Sound Card Theory of Operation 16-Bit Sampling Multimedia – Figure # 11
Installing Sound Cards • The steps to installing a sound card are similar to any other adapter. The onboard sound must be disabled before installing a new sound adapter.
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP • Audio Drivers: • WDM (Windows Driver Model) is a kernel mode process that handles audio management such as multiple streams of real-time audio. • DS3D (DirectSound3D) is a Microsoft development included in DirectX3 that adds more 3D audio effect commands. • A3D is an audio standard developed by Aureal Semiconductor that supports hardware acceleration and allows simulation of sounds in certain environments such as a tunnel or under water. • EAX (Environmental Audio Extensions) is Creative Labs’ development that allows software and game developers to create a realistic audio environment such as muffling effects and audio directional effects.
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP NT’s Multimedia Control Panel Tabs Multimedia – Table # 9
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP 2000’s Sounds and Multimedia Control Panel Tabs Multimedia – Table # 10
Speakers • Speaker Features: • Power Rating is how loud the volume can go without distorting the sound and is expressed in watts-per-channel. • Frequency Response Range is the range of sounds a speaker can reproduce. • Shielding cancels out and keeps magnetic interference from devices. • Listen to speakers with an audio CD and without headphones to hear the quality of the speakers.
Speakers • The following is a list of extras for speakers: • An external volume control • Headphone jacks • Headphone and microphone pass-through connectors • AC adapter • Proper connectors to connect speakers to the sound card • If the sound card is capable of 3D sound, a four or six speaker system is an enhancement.
Troubleshooting Sound Problems • Troubleshooting Sound Problems: • Verify that the sound card is secured in a PCI or ISA slot and no cuts are present in the speaker wires. • Verify installation of the correct sound drivers. • Verify that there are not any resource conflicts. • Check the speaker’s connection to the back of the computer.