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Group Techniques

Group Techniques

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Group Techniques

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  1. Group Techniques John A. CagleCalifornia State University, Fresno

  2. Brainstorming • Problem presented with problem to solve (etc.) • Members generate as many solutions as possible without criticism. • Ideas are recorded for all to see as fast as possible. • Brainstorming has a time limit and ideas are evaluated at another time.

  3. Brainstorming • Problem presented with problem to solve (etc.) • Members generate as many solutions as possible without criticism. • Ideas are recorded for all to see as fast as possible. • Brainstorming has a time limit and ideas are evaluated at another time.

  4. Rules for Brainstorming • Criticism is ruled out. • “Free-wheeling” is welcome. • Quantity is wanted. • Combination and improvement are sought.

  5. Rules for Brainstorming • Criticism is ruled out. • “Free-wheeling” is welcome. • Quantity is wanted. • Combination and improvement are sought.

  6. Problem Census • Group seated in semi-circle facing chart. • Explain purpose of technique. • Ask each person round robin to present one problem (or question, difficulty, etc.) • Post each on board or chart as presented. • Group votes on priorities. • Each problem dealt with in turn.

  7. Problem Census • Group seated in semi-circle facing chart. • Explain purpose of technique. • Ask each person round robin to present one problem (or question, difficulty, etc.) • Post each on board or chart as presented. • Group votes on priorities. • Each problem dealt with in turn.

  8. Nominal Group Technique • Problem, situation, or question presented. • Private generation of features or answers in writing without discussion. • Round robin sharing of ideas and recording on board or chart.

  9. Nominal Group Technique • Members clarify the items but do not evaluate. • Group ranks items or votes on priorities. • Discussion and then a decision is reached.

  10. Nominal Group Technique • Problem, situation, or question presented. • Private generation of features or answers in writing without discussion. • Round robin sharing of ideas and recording on board or chart. • Members clarify the items but do not evaluate. • Group ranks items or votes on priorities. • Discussion and then a decision is reached.

  11. Nominal Group Possible Alternative Steps • After initial ranking, the various proposals may be discussed and evaluated by the members. • Various proposals may be reviewed and combined or integrated where possible. • Rating scales or voting may be used in place of ranking. • The ranking procedure may be repeated until a convergence occurs.

  12. Delphi Technique • Technique done via mail, e-mail, FAX, etc. • Leader suggests in writing problem or idea among group. • Individually members think and respond in writing to Leader. • Leader summarizes and circulates to members. • Various iterations of process, including use of ranking & rating scales, strive to evolve a consensus before a meeting.

  13. Rational Management Technique • Rational Management Technique attempts to guide a group to a decision about possible solutions using explicit criteria. • Criteria are clearly identified: • Absolute criteria are “musts” • Relative criteria are “shoulds” • Possible solutions are clearly identified

  14. Rational Management Technique 2 • Each solution is checked against absolute criteria • Each solution is rated on each criterion • Degree to which solution meets each criterion (5 completely thru 1 barely to 0 not-at-all) • Degree of importance of each criterion (3 almost a “must” to 1 marginal] • Relative criteria are quantified and results tabulated.

  15. Rational Management Technique 5 2 10 4 15 15 Total points = 27 24

  16. Rational Management Technique 3 • The solution which meets all absolute criteria and has the highest relative score is selected. • In real life, we must often accept the best of less than perfect solutions. • The real value of the Rational Management Technique is to shed light on the criteria the members of the group really use to evaluate the solutions.

  17. Scheduling, Planning, and Budgeting • All tasks to be completed are listed. • The date each must be completed by is listed. • A person is assigned to complete each task. • Resources needed are listed and source of the resource is identified.

  18. A chart is made. Scheduling, Planning, and Budgeting

  19. PERT • PERT deals with events rather than tasks • An event is an action, activity, or occurrence • Steps in creating PERT flowchart • First event • Next events in sequence • Interconnections with lines and arrows • Continue until project completed

  20. PERT Characteristics • The project consists of a well-defined collection of jobs or activities, which when completed mark the end of the project. • The jobs may be started and stopped independently of each other, within a given sequence. • The jobs are ordered, that is, they must be performed in technological sequence. (For example, the foundation of a school must be constructed before the walls are put in place.)

  21. PERT • Determination of the goal of implementing the decision • Determine the events & activities • Order the events & activities in the best way • Determine the time of each activity or event • Divide the activities & events into smaller units • Allocate priorities to each activity & event • Determine resources (personnel, finances, & facilities) for each activity & event • Arrange a diagram specifying the flow of activities & events

  22. Strategic Planning • Where are we now? • Where do we want to be? • What do we have to do to get there? • How do we monitor our progress? Leadership Strategies, Inc.http://www.leadstrat.com/stradesc.htm

  23. Where are we now? • What are we doing well and why? • What aren’t we doing well and why? • What are our services/products, who are our customers, and what are their expectations? • How well are we doing with respect to • Meeting our past objectives? • Meeting our customers’ expectations? • Addressing the competition? • Meeting the needs of our internal people? • What have been our past barriers to success?

  24. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS MISSION STRATEGIES GOALS OBJECTIVES BARRIERS GUIDINGPRINCIPLES ACTION PLANS

  25. Sample Strategic Plan

  26. Where are we now?

  27. Where do we want to be?

  28. What do we have to do to get there?

  29. How do we monitor our progress?

  30. Project Management • The top management must concur on the following • Technical objective to be achieved • Assignments of the technical team • Approval of a preliminary budget • Approval of a preliminary schedule • Identification and approval of a project modification process

  31. Common elements of a project plan • Project overview = Mission • Statement of goals and objectives • Project management approach: technical objectives, performance & responsibility, approach to communication • Project schedules • Project cost control procedures • Identification of potential problems • Project budget • Evaluation procedures