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Section 3: Animals and Agriculture

Section 3: Animals and Agriculture

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Section 3: Animals and Agriculture

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  1. Section 3: Animals and Agriculture Preview • Bellringer • Objectives • Animals and Agriculture • Food from Water • Overharvesting • Aquaculture • Livestock

  2. Section 3: Animals and Agriculture Preview • Ruminants • Poultry

  3. Bellringer

  4. Objectives • Explainhow overharvesting affects the supply of aquatic organisms used for food. • Describethe current role of aquaculture in providing seafood. • Describethe importance of livestock in providing food and other products.

  5. Animals and Agriculture • Food from animals has been the basis of life for some human populations for centuries. • Our ancestors obtained animal protein by hunting and fishing. Today, most people get animal protein from domesticated species. • Domesticated describes organisms that have been bred and managed for human use.

  6. Food from Water • Because fish are an important food source for humans, the harvesting of fish has become an important industry worldwide. • However, when too many fish are harvested over a long period of time, ecological systems can be damaged.

  7. Food from Water The North Atlantic cod fishery has collapsed because too many fish were harvested over time.

  8. Overharvesting • Overharvesting is the catching or removing from a population more organisms than the population can replace. • Many governments are now trying to stop overharvesting. They have created no-fishing zones, so that fish populations can recover.

  9. Aquaculture • Aquacultureis the raising of aquatic plants and animals for human use or consumption. • Fish and other aquatic organisms provide up to 20 percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide. • Aquaculture may be one solution to the overharvesting of fish and other organisms in the world’s oceans.

  10. Aquaculture • Aquaculture is not a new idea. • This practice probably began in China about 4,000 years ago. • Today, China leads the world in using aquaculture to produce freshwater fish.

  11. Aquaculture • There are a number of different methods of aquaculture. Among these are • Fish farming • Fish ranching • Fish farms generally consist of many individual ponds that each contain fish at a specific stage of development. Fish grow to maturity in the ponds and are then harvested. • Fish ranches raise fish to a certain age, release them to the ocean, and then harvest the adults when they return to their birthplace to breed.

  12. Aquaculture • As with other methods of food production, however, aquaculture can cause environmental damage if not managed properly. • Aquatic organisms can produce a large amount of waste, which can be a source of pollution. • Because aquaculture requires so much water, the process can deplete local water supplies. • Despite these problems, aquaculture will continue to be an important source of protein for the human diet.

  13. Livestock • Livestockis the term given to domesticated animals that are raised to be used on a farm or ranch or to be sold for profit. • Populations of livestock have changed dramatically in the last 40 years. • Large livestock operations produce most of the meat that is consumed in developed countries.

  14. Livestock

  15. Livestock • In developing countries, livestock not only provide leather, wool, eggs, and meat, but also serve other functions. • Some livestock are used as draft animals to pull carts and plows. • Other livestock provide manure as the main source of plant fertilizer or as a fuel for cooking.

  16. Ruminants • Ruminantsare cud-chewing mammals that have a three- or four-chambered stomach. • Cattle, sheep, and goats are examples of ruminants. • Cud is the food that these animals regurgitate from the first chamber of their stomachs and chew again to aid digestion. • When we eat the meat of ruminants, we are using them to convert plant material, such as grass stems and woody shrubs, into food that we can digest—such as beef.

  17. Ruminants • Humans have created hundreds of breeds of cattle that are suited to life in different climates. • Worldwide meat production per person has increased significantly since 1950.

  18. Poultry • Since 1961, the population of chickens worldwide has increased to a greater percentage than the population of any other livestock. • Chickens are a type of poultry, domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs. • In more-developed countries, chickens and turkeys are usually raised in factory farms.

  19. Graphic Organizer