Manifest Destiny By: Alex Heo
What is Manifest Destiny? • Manifest Destiny- the idea popular in the United States during the 1800s that the country must expand its boundaries to the Pacific. • James L. O’Sullivan came up with the slogan in 1845
Oregon Country • Huge area of land between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, north of California. • Washington and Oregon are states that came from the Oregon Country. • It was from the Adams-Onis Treaty with Great Britain. • The Oregon Trail is 2,000 miles long, starts at the Mississippi Valley, goes over the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, and crosses the Columbia and Snake Rivers. • The phrase, “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” is used to refer to the line of latitude that Democrats believed should be the nation’s border in Oregon.
Texas • Main Idea- Texas won their independence from Mexico and asked to be admitted into the US. • Conflict started in 1803. • Stephen F. Austin organized the first land grant colongy in Texas. He recruited and lead 300 families into Texas. • In 1803, the Mexican government decree to stop all immigration from the US. This angered many Texans. • In 1833, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became president of Mexico. • The Alamo is an abandoned Spanish mission. For 12 long days, approximately 180 Texans held of thousands of Mexican soldiers led by Santa Anna. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna ordered an all-out attack on the Alamo. The Alamo fell, along with it’s brave leaders. There were few survivors left to tell of the battle. • On March 2, 1836, Texas declared its independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos. • Sam Houston became commander in chief of Texas forces.
Battle of San Jacinto • The Battle of San Jacinto occurred on April 21, 1836. • The battle cry was, “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!” • In18 minutes, Texas won the battle. 600 Mexicans died while more than 700 were injured. Only 19 Texans died. Santa Anna was captured. • President Andrew Jackson refuse to annex Texas because it would upset the balance of slave states and free states. • On December 29, 1845, Texas became a US state under President James K. Polk.
New Mexico • New Mexico was included in the Mexican Cession along with California and Arizona • The Santa Fe Trail left the Missouri River near Independence, Missouri, and crossed the prairies to the Arkansas River. It followed the river west toward the Rocky Mountains before turning south into New Mexico Territory. • As trade with New Mexico increased, so did the population. More Americans started settling in New Mexico.
California • The Spanish influenced culture in California • John C. Fre’mont described the climate in California as mild. • Building ports along the Pacific Coast to increase trade with China and Japan, and bordering the sea instead of a foreign country are benefits of extending the US to the Pacific.
War with Mexico • The US insisted the border of Texas is the Rio Grande River, but Mexico insisted that the border is the Nueces River. • Polk called for an emergency cabinet meeting to discuss the attack. They agreed that the attack was grounds for war with Mexico. • Frederick Douglas felt that the war was “disgraceful” and “cruel”. He also said that is the US wins the war, slave states would increase. • The California Bear Flag was used to show the independent Republic of California. • Polk sent General Winfield Scott to capture Mexico City. • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War. It was signed in February 1848. • Both sides agreed that the Rio Grande is the border of Texas. The US received new states from Mexico which are New Mexico, Arizona, and California. • In 1853, the US purchased a southern strip of Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million dollars. It is called the Gadsden Purchase.
California Gold Rush • In 1849, more than 80,000 settlers called forty-niners, settled in California looking for gold. • Some forty-niners had to cross the Sierra Nevada mountain range to get to California. • Mexico, South America, Europe, Australia, and China all sent forty-niners. • Boomtown- a community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population. • Levi Strauss created the first pairs of jeans for miners who complained about how fast their clothes wore out. The jeans turned out to be a fashion hit.
Utah • Mormons came to Utah to fulfill their vision of the godly life. • Joseph Smith founded the church in 1803 in New York State. • In 1844, a mob in Illinois killed Joseph Smith. • Brigham Young took over and moved the Mormons to Utah, near the Great Salt Lake. • Utah officially became a US state in 1896.
Causes and Effects of Westward Movement Causes Effects Americans accept Manifest Destiny As the East becomes more crowded, Americans want more land. The West contains furs, lumber, and precious metals. Native Americans are forced off their lands The United States wars with MexicoThe U.S extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific.