Download
environment s c o ns e r v a t i o n n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
wtp for irigation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
wtp for irigation

wtp for irigation

0 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

wtp for irigation

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ENVIRONMENT s, CONSERVATION ISSN0971-765 X Vol. 25 ( 2 ) 2019

  2. EM INTERNATIONAL C-101, Prakriti, Balewadi, Baner, Pune 411 045, Maharashtra, India  91-20-46745119, 9326712297 Email: rktem@pn3.vsnl.net.in Website: www.envirobiotechjournals.com EM INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS POLLUTION RESEARCH ASIAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION Reflis*1.2, Fahrurrozie Sjarkowi3, Sriati3 and Didik Susetyo4 1 Department of Environmental Science, The Graduate School of Sriwijaya University, Indonesia 2Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia 3Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia 4Department of Economics Development, Faculty of Economics, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia Quarterly (Quarterly) ISSN 0257 - 8050 ISSN # 0972 - 3005 Quarterly ISSN 0971 - 765 X Ref. No.EEC-F-209 Date: 28.12.2018 Dear Authors, The Editor thanks for your manuscript entitled – -Farmers’ Participation for Irrigation Water Resource Services Fee, Kapahiang Regency Bengkulu Province-Indonesia submittedfor publication in - ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION. Pl. always quote Ref. No. EEC–F-209, while doing any correspondence with us. Editor is pleased to inform you that your paper is accepted for publication in ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION, in 2019 (2) Issue. Kindly note the journal has SCOPUS h index 10.0 and NAAS India impact rating 4.89 (www.envirobiotechjournals.com). The journal is in Master Journal List of ISI, Thomson Reuters, U.S.A. Thanking you & with regards Yours Sincerely Publisher

  3. ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION VOL. 25 (2) : 2019 CONTENTS 475–484 Impact of green Hr practices on environmental sustainability of a UAE based organization —Jacob Cherian, Jolly Jacob and Sherine Farouk 485–487 Saponin: a new promising plant compound to control plant pathogens —Aalaa K. Hassan and Nawres A. S. Al-Kuwaiti The effect of different additions of curcuma extract (Curcuma canthorrhiza roxb) in artificial feed on the growth and immunity of Juvenile Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) —Pinandoyo, Vivi Endar Herawati and Ristiawan Agung Nugroho 488–496 Fungi associated with Platypus cylindrus (Fab. Coleoptera) Xylomycetophage of Quercus suber of north-eastern Algeria —Mounia Amoura, Maria Lurdes Inàçio, Filomena Nóbrega, Gahdab Chakali and Edmendo Sousa 497–506 507–513 Efficiency, physico-chemical, commodity-technological properties and biological value of pork depending on fattening technologies —Vladimir Pogodaev, Valentin Skripkin, Evgeny Rastovarov, Vladimir Orobets, Alexander Agarkov and Nikolay Agarkov Detection of some of the virulence genes in Klebsiella spp. isolated from community- acquired pneumonia in Basra City, Iraq —H.M. Alhajem, M.A. Almazini and B.Y. Khudaier 514–522 Phytotoxicity of aluminium contaminated soil to Scirpus grossus and Typha angustifolia —Ipung Fitri Purwanti, Bieby Voijant Tangahu, Harmin Sulistiyaning Titah and Setyo Budi Kurniawan 523–526 527–536 Farmers’ participation for irrigation water resource services fee, Kapahiang regency Bengkulu province-Indonesia —Reflis, Fahrurrozie Sjarkowi, Sriati and Didik Susetyo 537–541 A study on the efficiency of desining urban Park as cooling spot in the center of Bangkok - Targeting Raining Season —Kenta Fukagawaand Ariya Aruninta 542–555 Enhanced arid areas on-site Aryl-Di-Alkyl-phosphatase biosensor built on au-nanoparticles decorated graphene hybrid nano-sheets for diazinon detection —Muntasir Ali Al-Najjari, Othman Mousa Hakami, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab, Emad Mohamed Ebada and Taharh Zelai 556–561 The Fijian and Indonesian perception of climate change: A case study of University student organisations —Ravinesh Rohit Prasad, Sugeng Utaya, I Komang Astina and Dwiyono Hari Utomo 562–570 Carbon stock of different land use systems —Felix T. Cancio, Treaseur B. Susulan, Charlyn T. Gorgonio, Jollibee O. Marilla and Guillermo B. Bonghanoy Implementation local wisdom of Karampuang tribal community for forest conservation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia —Muhammad Yusuf, Sugeng Utaya, I. Komang Astinaand I. Nyoman Ruja S.U 571–576 577–581 On the ways of improving photosynthesis productivity in spring rape plants in the crops —V. A. Gulidova, T. V. Zubkova, V. A. Kravchenko, O. A. Dubrovina

  4. II CONTENTS Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 582–588 The level of community participation on forest and land rehabilitation program in Sorong City, Indonesia —Yohan Putirulan, Rima Herlina S. Siburian and Ihwan Tjolli 589–598 Abundance and diversity of meiofauna as water quality bioindicator in Losari Coast, Makassar, Indonesia —Muh. Sri Yusal, Muh Aris Marfai, Suwarno Hadisusanto and Nurul Khakhim A review of Fusarium head blight disease, pathogenicity and immuno-identification —Alaa A. Al-Rifaie and Marwan Y. Al-Maqtoofi 599–603 604–608 Monitoring of species diversity of microorganisms in the soil of the Northeastern Caspian in the Spring, summer and fall periods —Diana Talgatovna Idrissova, Erik Zharylkasynovich Shorabaev, Saltanat Zharylkasynovna Ibadullayeva, Anipa Seidalievna Tapalova, Lazzat Bauyrzhanovna Ramanova Does increasing nestboxes size affects breeding success of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus)? study in a Locality of Seraidi (Northeast, Algeria) —Walid Sakraoui, Zihad Bouslama and Adnene Ibrahim Belabed 609–613 614–619 The coal characterization using proximate and ultimate analysis- A case study of South Sumatera Coal, Indonesia —Aryansah, Eddy Ibrahim, Subriyer Nasir and Muhammad Said Breeding biology of the Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus, 1766) in Taranga Hill Forests of North Gujarat, India —Manish Gor and I.R. Gadhvi 620–625 626–629 Printing of silk fabric using eco-friendly textile auxiliaries —Sunita Kale, Sangita Naik and Manisha Karhale 630–635 Investigation of strength and durability properties of fly ash based geopolymer concrete on various curing techniques with M-sand as fine aggregate —G. Siva Chidambaram, M. Natarajan and K. Vivek 636–642 Species diversity of predaceous coccinellids in different crop ecosystems under the hilly and terai region of West Bengal (India) —Biwash Gurung, PonnusamyN. and Suprakash Pal 643–649 Leachability behavior of heavy metals by contaminated soil with additives —G Venkata Ramaiah, S. Krishnaiah and Shankara 650–654 Antagonistic activity of goat milk and fermented milk products on its basis enriched with biologically active additives —Sanam Nadirova, Yuriy Sinyavskiy, Zhaniha Lessova, Arsen Saltybayev and Aigul Alybayeva 655–661 Optimization of feature extraction from high resolution satellite imagery for urban environment —R. Murugasan and C. Venkatesan 662–666 Effect of type of curing and curing temperature on strength behavior of Geopolymer concrete made with Flyash —G. Siva Chidambaram and M. Natarajan 667–671 Particulate matter in stack emissions, generated by various fuels – a comparative study —Karuppiah I., Sumathi S. and Gurunadha Rao Bvs 672–676 Adaptive sunflower cultivation technologies in West Kazakhstan —Beybit Nasiyev and Ainash Yessenguzhina 677–680 Experimental behaviour of water hyacinth Ash as partial replacement of cement on short column —V. Murugesh and N. Balasundaram

  5. III CONTENTS Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 Physicochemical properties of Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce): A tribal fruit of Rajasthan —Swati Shukla and Shashi Jain 681–685 686–690 Assessment of uranium in the groundwater along Neendakara-Kayamkulam belt, Southwest coast of India —Anitha, J.K and Sabu Joseph 691–697 Analysis of flooding and drying conditions through trend analysis of AMSR-E satellite soil moisture over the Himalayan Gandak River basin —Brijesh Kumar and Dipankar Roy 698–701 An experimental investigation of the strength obtained by partial replacement of cement with sugarcane bagasse ash and rice husk ash in cement concrete —S. Prakash Chandar, N. Rajmohan, Satish Pranav D., K. Thiyaneshwaran, Dheepak S., Jayasuriya S.and K. Muthukumar 702–705 Performance enhancement of concrete by replacing coarse aggregete with tyre rubber: A Study —M. Harikaran and N. Balasundaram Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. thermophilic obligate producing Serine alkaline protease from hot spring in Sungai Abu, Kerinci, Jambi, Indonesia —Arzita, Syamsuardi, Anthoni Agustien and Yetria Rilda 706–712 713–717 Assessing semi-natural forests as population sink for pollinators in Mountainous agricultural field —Subhankar Gurung, Arun Chettri and Aditya Pradhan 718–720 An experimental study on fire resistant concrete using mineral admixture —Johnpaul V. N. Balasudaram, Anima M., Avishkar T., Devaan and K.C. 721–728 Comparative impact analysis of drought in Marathwada region, India —Sagar Khetwani and Ram Babu Singh 729–735 Source material for lentil selection in the conditions of South-east Kazakhstan —Alma Zhumabaevna Saikenova, Taken Nurgasenovich Nurgasenov, Mukhtar Sarsenbekovich Kudaibergenov, Mirjana Vasie and Bakytzhan Rakhmetolinovich Saikenov 736–739 An experimental study on comparision of curing pf concrete using natural resins and curing components —R. Sindhu, V. Johnpaul, A. Nisha Devi and R. Senthilkumar 740–744 Micro structural study on nano fly ash concrete —M. Harihanandh and N.K. Amudhavalli 745–752 Hydropower projects and air Pollution in the Northwestern Indian Himalayas —Renu Lata, Madhuri Rishi, Rajkumar Herojeet and Konchok Dolma 753–756 Experimental study on aramid fiber in rehabilitation and strengthening of structures using recycled coarse aggregate —S. Gobhiga, R. Sundararajan and R. Anandaraj 757–766 Environmental, social and economic impact assessment of ecotourism in the Tirthan Valley, Great Himalayan National Park: A World Heritage Site, Northwestern Himalaya, India —Sarla Shashni, Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal, Gulshan Sharma and Jatinder M. Julka 767–774 The use of sudan grass for the production of green fodder, hay and Haylage in Western Kazakhstan —Beybit Nasiyev, Nurbolat Zhanatalapov, Ainash Yessenguzhina and Rakhimzhan Yeleshev 775–778 Behaviour of RC beams with ferro cement warp – An experimental investigation —S. Gobhiga, R. Sundararajan and Vijaya Kumar

  6. IV CONTENTS Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 779–783 Wastewater treatment : Milk processing industry effluent using sequential batch reactor process —Y. Ibrahim, M. Ayisha Sidiqua, Vasanthi Padmanabhan, Sufiyan Ahmed Jeddyand R. Tauseef Ahamed 784–789 Environmental assessment of hydropower development in Northwestern Indian Himalayan region —Renu Lata and Konchok Dolma 790–796 A theoretical approach on urban challenges of rurban slums: An assessment of transformation of villages to slum —Neha Pranav Kolhe and K. K. Dhote 797–802 Studies of physicochemical water parameters to assess the water quality of Gangan River in Moradabad (Uttar Pradesh), India by using water quality index —Animesh Agarwal, Nitin Kumar Agrawal and Harendra Kumar 803–806 Research in soil stabilization using biological process and its Environmental impact - A Review —K. Sundarayamini and P.D. Arumairaj Plant growth promotion by volatile organic compounds produced by Chryseobacterium rhizoplanae isolated from Vigna radiata —O.N. Shemshura, Zh.B. Suleimenova, A.K. Sadanov, M.B. Alimzhanova, S.T. Daugaliyeva, G.A. Mombekova and Zh.K. Rakhmetova 807–812 Prospect of optimizing Pterospermum celebicum stem bark ethanol extract and bee pollen composition in the formulation of Sunscreen with simplex lattice design method —Asnah Marzuki, Latifah Rahman and Sukamto 813–817 The bioactive alkaloid from Derris elliptica (Roxb.) as biopesticide agents of Scotinophara coartata E on rice crops —Weny Musa, Chairunisah. J. Lamangantjo and Jusna Ahmad 818–821 822–830 Computation of heat quantity, thermal detector filling coefficient and peformance of single circuit solar system with thermo siphon circulation —Murat Kunelbayev, Omirlan Auelbekov, Nazbek Katayev, Aliya Kalizhanova, Didar Yedilkhan, Ainur Kozbakova and Salauat Daulbayev 831–836 Coastal Village empowerment model for the fishermen economic strength in Pasuruan —Dwiarko Nugrohoseno, Erina Rahmadyanti, Wiwin Yulianingsih and Hasan Dani 837–844 Assessment of physical carrying capacity of tourism for ecological development at Phawngpui National park, Mizoram, India —Lalrosanga, Manohar Sajnaniand Rintluanga Pachuau 845–852 Community conservation behavior in controlling of forest and peatland fires, in the Kalawa village forest, Indonesia —Penyang, Syekhfani, Mochtar Luthfi Rayes and Mangku Purnomo Effect of nitric acid mutation of Bacillus subtilis on seeds germination of Vigna Radiata —Zh. B. Suleimenova, O.N. Shemshura, A.K. Sadanov, G.A. Mombekova, Zh. K. Rakhmetova 853–857 858–869 The dependence of productivity and elemental status of dairy cows on the level of lead —Sergey Miroshnikov, Oleg Zavyalov, Alexey Frolov and Ivan Gorlov Experimental investigation of Aegle marmelos L. as biofertilizer and biopesticides —Andi Badli, Rompegading, Muhammad Ardi and Yusminah Hala 870–875 876–887 A fuzzy logic control of a polynomial carbon dioxide model —Azeddine Elmajidi, El housseine El Mazoudi, Jamila Elalami and Noureddine Elalami

  7. V CONTENTS Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 888–895 Application of activated carbon derived from durian wastes for improving turbidity, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon —M. F. M. Nordin, Y. Manickam, Shameli K., Tsuji T., M. J. Megat Mohd Noor, Shariff A. H. M., R. Wannahari and A. Saufi M. Nawi 896–899 Studying new fish feeds based on nontraditional feed additives —Ayazhan Urkimbayeva, Nurzhan Sarsembayeva, Kuandyk Sagyndykov,Bozena Lozowicka, Asyl Biltebay and Miramkul Yergumarova 900–906 Characterization of activated carbon prepared from cassava peel for Methylene blue removal —M. F. M. Nordin, N. A. Rosli, Shameli K., Tsuji T., M. J. Megat Mohd Noor, R. Wannahari and A. Saufi M. Nawi 907–916 Development the International responsibility system in preventing damage caused by climate change —Mona Davanlou, Seyed Abbas Poorhashemi, Ali Zare and Ohsen Abdollahi 917–922 Breeding new aquaculture objects at geothermal sources —Kuanysh Nygmanovich Syzdykov, Zhaxygali Batyrgaleyevich Kuanchaleyev, Ainur Serikbaevna Assylbekova, Eldar Berikuly Marlenov and Suyundyk Erlanovich Mussin Evaluation of growth performance of three stocks of Labeo fimbriatus from rivers of Peninsular India —S. Vijaykumar, Muttappa Khavi and Y. Basavaraju 923–930 931–934 Synthesis and Characterization of 2 - (3-Hydroxybenzylidene) Amino)-1-methyl-1H- Imidazol-4(5H)-one and evaluation of biological activity —Osama S. Hashim and Murtadha Gh. Jasim 935–942 An insight into an extra-curricular activity on environmental education: an experiential learning approach —Sikhulile Bonginkosi Msezane 943–947 Explanation of the spatial pattern of Tourism capabilities in the development of rural entrepreneurship (Case study: Villages of Rasht, Guilan Province) —Masoume Bloki Asli, Mohammadali. Ahmadian and Hamid. Jafari 948–956 Trends and challenges of mangrove restoration management - A lessons from Labuhan Village, Indonesia —Rudianto, Nia Nurdiana and Andik Isdianto 957–963 Diagnosis and differentiation of entamoeba infection in human stool samples using microscopic and Immunochromatographic assays —Jafar E. Jameela and Mamdouh H. Abdel-ghaffar 964–971 Provision of moisture and photosynthetic activity of oil flax crops at different seeding times and seeding rates —Dinara Bulatovna Zhamalova, Saniya Abiltaevna Tulkubayeva, Marat Bulatovich Tashmukhamedov, Altynay Burkhatovna Abuova, Kuantai Aubakirovich Aubakirov and Almabek Batyrzhanovich Nugmanov 972–977 Economical-biological features of Simmental and Holstein hybrids —A.P. Velmatov, N.N. Neyaskin, Al-Isavi Ali Abdulamir Hamza, T.N. Tishkina and A.A. Velmatov 978–984 The sensitivity of ants on soil and air temperature as bioindicators of climate change in small Islands of Indonesia —Fransina Latumahina and Gun Mardiatmoko 985–991 A multi-dimensional drought risk analysis in the Free State drought-hit municipalities, South Africa —Bernard Moeketsi Hlalele

  8. Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019; pp. (527-536) Copyright@ EM International ISSN 0971–765X Farmers’ participation for irrigation water resource services fee, Kapahiang regency Bengkulu province- Indonesia Reflis*1.2, Fahrurrozie Sjarkowi3, Sriati3 and Didik Susetyo4 1 Department of Environmental Science, The Graduate School of Sriwijaya Univeristy, Indonesia 2Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia 3Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia 4Department of Economics Development, Faculty of Economics, Sriwijaya University, Indonesia (Received 5 November, 2018; accepted 28 December, 2018) ABSTRACT The environmental services fee program is a policy instrument to protect the watershed and increase the quantity quality and availability (QQA) of irrigation water. The value of willingness to pay as the environmental service of water resource can state the participation of farmers in the sustainable management of environmental services for water resources in the upstream watershed area of Musi. Kapahiang Regency. Furthermore this study aims to find out the participation of farmers through the formulation of willingness and ability to pay a fee for irrigation water resource services. The result of binary regression obtained that factors affecting willingness to pay of farmer for irrigation water resource services fee were the basic knowledge of irrigation water resource services fee the role in irrigation maintenance the farming income and the distance rice fields to the river as a water resource. The estimation model of the ability of farmers to pay compensation for the services of the water resources environment with multinomial logit regression showed that the distance rice fields to the river the status of land ownership education and demographic history affect the willingness to pay of farmers for irrigation water resource services fee. The average value of willingness to pay that farmer respondents want is IDR 168,927.37 per land areal and planting season. Meanwhile, the total value of willingness to accept the farmer community in the upstream watershed area of Kepahiang Regency was estimated to be Rp.640,310,526.30 per planting season. Key words : Wilingness and ability of Farmers, Irrigation water resource services fee, Wilingness to Pay, Quantity. quality and availability (QQA). Introduction Quality and Availability (QQA) systems of water for sustainable human life and all organism. Water is one of the essential needs in life including in the agriculture aspect. With the scarcity of water. con- flict and competition emerge to possess. utilize and manage water resources which result as the water management becomes increasingly important in overcoming its limitations on time. space. quantity. and quality (Valiant, 2014). Rapid population and economic growth generate the high pressure on the land use which results in a decrease in the ecological function of the watershed area (Sihite, 2001; Muradian and Cardenas, 2015; Valiant, 2014). The management of the ecological watershed functions and soil and water conserva- tion is a means of determining water and Quantity. *Corresponding author’s email :

  9. 528 Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 The environmental services fee program is an in- creasingly popular policy instrument for watershed protection. Most of the program involve the users for example farmers in downstream as consumers. In addition, the producers are the rice field owners in upstream who carry out activities to protect the watershed’s ecological functions. The rice field own- ers in upstream can be paid to stop deforestation, do reforestation, reduce soil erosion on agricultural land or stop the slash and burn farming system. The potential benefits to water users in downstream in- clude improvements in QQA water reducing the risk of severe flooding and reducing inheritance value by conserving natural resources for future generations (Whittington and Pagiola, 2012; Lapeyre et al., 2015; McElwee et al., 2014). An envi- ronment service fee is a tool for managing ecosys- tems related to ecology and its economic services (Mombo et al., 2014; Rodríguez-de-Francisco and Budds, 2014). From an economic standpoint.the en- vironmental service fee of water resources can run effectively if the market mechanism works well (Salim, 2005). In the implementation of successes and failures of the environmental services fee program relates to the role of local communities. the level of received compensation and the broader dynamics of life (He and Sikor, 2015). The environmental services fee emerged as an incentive-based policy instrument to manage and secure the flow of environmental ser- vices for human welfare (Caro et al., 2015). The en- vironmental services fee (IJL) deals with environ- mental problems as a result of production system failures in internalizing environmental costs and failure to regulate the behavior of institutions to maximize individual utility (Singh, 2015). Willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental ser- vices fee of water resources reflects the perception of water user farmers on the existence and importance of water. Considering the limited development funds and irrigation management from the govern- ment. it is necessary to have active participation of water user farmers to take care of them (Yulianti, 2012). In the management context of environmental fee sustainable water resources.The IJL scheme is considered a management tool that can help to change the destructive behavior of environmental economic actors in ecosystems through compensat- ing for their losses and increasing attitudes to con- servation (Mombo et al., 2014). IJL is generally ar- ranged on a voluntary, conditional agreement be- tween at least one ‘seller’ and one ‘buyer’ as long as environmental services are well defined or re- sources that use will produce environmental ser- vices (Caro et al., 2015). The success of the Environ- mental services fee that is voluntary dependent on changes in the behavior of the people involved. Lo- cal heterogeneity as a livelihood strategy plays a strong role in achieving the ultimate goal of the suc- cess of the Program of environmental services fee (Newton et al., 2012). WTP of environmental services fee of water re- sources is an effort to conserve stable water throughout the year. The existence of upstream for- ests as a catchment area must always be maintained. In an effort to conserve the cost is one of the ob- stacles. The lack of a conservation budget is one of the important factors that make the management of watershed areas ineffective. (Yulianti, 2012; Hayes et al., 2015). Utilizing market mechanisms can protect water sources in the watershed (maintaining avail- ability and meeting water demand). Thus. the de- velopment of market mechanisms must consider the assessment of the total economy and ensure that there are stakeholders who have awareness. knowl- edge and capability in the process carried out. as well as a clear definition of land rights; the existence of supporting policies and institutionalization (Rozak, 2010). According to Muradian and Cardenas (2015) the market for environmental resources faces a number of important limitations. It is caused by the charac- ter of the community or group of most ecosystem functions. The market faces serious limitations as an instrument in possessing environmental services. The economic value of river water resources is not often defined because there is no market. River wa- ter resources that provide benefits and services are intangible and are often misinterpreted as non-mar- ket value products and are not traded in real eco- nomic markets so that the general public may not be willing to pay if additional funds are needed for environmental management. Therefore. environ- mental quality is degraded over time due to the ab- sence of prices (money value) (Yeo et al., 2013). Basically. farmers strongly agree to adopt prac- tices or activities to restore ecological conditions and therefore receive the fee set by the government as their compensation even though they incur addi- tional costs and reduce income (Meyer et al., 2015). It is hoped that the majority of environmental ser- vices fee initiatives can help to improve the liveli-

  10. REFLIS ET AL 529 hoods of local communities by reducing poverty. especially for the poor who are involved in selling their environmental services. However. the environ- mental services fee program with its approach to poverty reduction certainly faces several risks and constraints (Mudaca et al., 2015). This study aims to analyze the willingness and ability of farmers to pay environmental services fee for water resources and identify factors influencing the farmer participation in environmental services fee of irrigation water re- sources in the upstream Musi watershed in Kepahiang Regency. Bengkulu Province. Indonesia. ronmental services, (2) Obtaining Supply Value (BIDs), (3) Determining Total WTP (TWTP), and (4) Evaluating CVM. Logistic Regression Analysis a. Logistic Regression Analysis was used to ana- lyze the influence of socio-economic and institu- tional factors on the level of farmer participation in environmental services fee for water re- sources (Dipokusumo, 2011): Logit [P(Y  j)]= j + Xi; j = 1, 2, 3, ..., c-1. ……. (1) To measure the level of farmer participation in the form of willingness and ability to pay for envi- ronmental services as suggested by Hosmer and Lameshow (1989). with modifications as follows: (i) Assessment of the willingness to pay for envi- ronmental services: Logit Will2[P(Y j)] = j + Xi; j = 1, 2, 3, ..., c-1. ……. (2) (ii) Assessment of the ability to pay for environ- mental services: Logit Afford4[P(Yj)] = j +Xi; j = 1, 2, 3, ..., c-1. ……. (3) Will2 [P (Yj)] = The binary logistic regression model expressed in 2 (two) possible events in the form of variable categories as follows: 1 = unwilling to pay Environmental Services fee for Irrigation water resources, 2 = willing to pay Environmental Services fee for irrigation water resources. In the analysis of possible event from the category of re- sponse variables carried out through logit transfor- mation (Sugiyono, 2009). b. Participation of farmers can be expressed in the scale of very low. low. medium and high. so that the measurement can be in a statement of the ability to pay fee for irrigation water re- source services. For measuring the level of par- ticipation. an assessment of the level of repay- ment ability was stated as follows: • Afford4[P(Yj)] = The multinomial logistic re- gression model was expressed in 4 (four) cat- egories as follows: Very low participation = 1 if WTP was smallest alternative irrigation fee value (IDR 150,000); Low participation = 2 if WTP was a small alternative irrigation fee value (IDR 180,000); Medium participation = 3 if WTP was moderate alternative irrigation fee value (IDR 210,000); High participation = 4 if WTP was large alternative irrigation fee value (IDR 250,000). Methodology Method This research conducted in the upstream watershed area of Musi. Kepahiang Regency. Bengkulu Prov- ince. Indonesia. The research was conducted through the survey with the quantitative approach and descriptive analysis with the qualitative method. The population was all farmers who rely on the irrigation water as a source of irrigated rice fields in the upstream Musi watershed in Kepahiang Regency. Bengkulu Province. Indonesia. This study used a random sampling method. The number of samples in each village was determined by the proportional random sampling. The number of samples used in this study was 100 samples (re- spondents of irrigated rice farmers) spread in 54 vil- lages in 3 (three) sub-districts which were the loca- tion of the study. Gujarati (1995) and Guntoro (2003) stated that the normal curve distribution can be achieved if the number of research samples ap- proaches 100. For qualitative methods using purpo- sive sampling and snowballing sampling. The re- source people. informants or participants become the samples of data sources. Method of Data Analysis Data obtained in the field were processed and ana- lyzed quantitatively and carried out qualitatively. To analyze the willingness to pay (WTP). a contin- gent valuation method (CVM) was used. This method was a direct calculation (survey) by asking the willingness to pay (WTP) to the respondent us- ing a questionnaire. This method allows all com- modities that were not traded in the market to be estimated for economic value by using the following stages: (1) Forming a Hypothetical Market of envi-

  11. 530 Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 • Xi = Independent variabel consisting X1= age (year); X2= education where 1 = not graduating from primary school, 2 = primary school, 3 = secondary school, 4= high school and 5 = higher education; X3= size of household (person); X4= land area (Ha); X5= knowledege about Environ- mental services fee ( 1= if know and 0 = other- wise) (Dummy); X6 = demographic history ( 1=if a migrant and 0 = otherwise) (Dummy); X7 = role in irrigation maintannce ( 1= never in irriga- tion maintannce, 2 = rarely in irrigation mainte- nance, 3 = frequently in irrigation maintannce); X8 = Farming income (IDR/land areal/planting season); X9 = Status of land ownership (1=share- cropper, 2= tenant farmer, 3= owner); X10 = dis- tance river (as water resource) to rice fields (meters);  = intresep;  = slope of regression model. ticipation in the formulation of willingness to pay IJL of irrigation water resource at  (alpha) 1%, 5%, and 10%. In detail, it can be seen in Table 1. From the results of the binary logit regression analyst. the analysis of the effect of socio-economic factors on the willingness to pay of farmers in envi- ronmental services fee of irrigation water resources obtained a value of -2 log likelihood which is 74.52 resulting Chi-square value is 35.687 with a signifi- cant 0.000. It means that independent variables si- multaneously have a significant effect on the partici- pation of farmer to be willing and unwilling to pay environmental services fee of irrigation water re- sources. Other interpretation is that the binary logit model obtained can explain or predict the choice of farmers. The test of Hosmer and Lemeshow show that the p-Value (0.768) is greater than alpha 0.2. which means that the empirical data matches the model (Table 1) (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 1989). In this model the value of Nagelkerke R Square is 0.449 which is relatively good. The Nagelkerke R Square value shows about how much effects of the independent variables determine the respondents’ possibilities of willingness to pay of farmer to envi- ronmental services fee of irrigation water resources. The value of the Nagelkerke R Squares is 0.449. which means that simultaneously all the diversity of WTP variables of respondents is 44.9 percent can be explained by the model. the remaining is 55.1 per- cent explained by variables outside the model. The value of R Square in economic research on natural resources and the environment is still tolerated up to 15 percent (Garrod and Willis, 1999; Sutopo et al., 2011). Based on Table 2, the results show that the value of observations and expectations for possiblity to environmental services fee of irrigation water re- source with the difference between the overall cor- rected value (Overall Percentage) is 82.0 percent of 100, then the resulting regression model is quite fea- sible. The binary logistic regression equation model is: Results and Discussion Factors affecting participation of farmer in enviromental services fee (IJL) of irrigation water resources From 100 respondents. there were 76 people (76%) who were willing to pay for the environmental ser- vices fee of irrigation water resource purpose to operational cost and maintaining irrigation net- works and 24 people (24%) were unwilling to pay environmental services fee (IJL) of irrigation water resource for several reasons. The main reason of unwillingness to pay was because the assumption that water is a public good so it does not need to pay. The quality, quantity, and availability (QQA) of water received were not good enough. and their distrust of the management of the Water User Farm- ers Association. The social and economic factors in- cluded in the model are age, education level, size of the household, land area, knowledge about environ- mental services fee, demographic history, the role of respondents in irrigation management, farming in- come, the status of land ownership and distance rice fields to the river as irrigation resources. YWTP = -3.617 - 1.173X5 + 1.332X7 + 1.641 X8 + 0.003 X10 The results of the WTP logistic regression model show that there were out of 10 social and economic factors there are 4 (four) factors affecting the will- ingness to pay of farmer to environmental services fee of irrigation water resource namely: knowledge of environmental services fee of irrigation water re- Establishing the Willingness to Pay Model of IJL of irrigation water resources in the Upstream Musi of Kepahiang Regency The results of the analysis show that out of the ten factors included in the model, only 4 (four) variables have a significant effect on the model of farmer par-

  12. REFLIS ET AL 531 source (X5), role in irrigation maintenance (X7), farming income (X8), and the distance of rice fields to river (X10). The knowledge factor about environ- mental services fee of irrigation water resource af- fects the increase or decrease in the willingness to pay of farmer to environmental services fee of the irrigation water resource. Hayes (2015) explained that the success of the environmental services fee depends on the ability of the community to translate its objectives to the conservation of natural resource management and produce collectively regulated environmental additional benefits. Matthies (2015) emphasized that environmental services fee of irri- gation water resource is considered for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. The participation in environmental services fee can in- crease the resilience and survival of small farmers through structural. operational and financial diver- sification. Furthermore. Matthies (2015) explained that the environmental services fee can act as a strat- egy to reduce needs and reduce the risk of land use for the community because the diversity of land use by landowners can avoid developing risks. Leimona (2015) identified that environmental services fee of irrigation water resource payments is in accordance with the capabilities and expectations of the community which are very favored and fea- sible. This type of payment is well known as the so- cial economic (socioeconomic) investment like mu- tual cooperation and the role in institutions which is one of the important aspects of the environmental services fee and anti-poverty approach. Further- Table 1. Results of Analysis of the affect of Socio-Economic Factors on Willingness to Pay Farmers in IJL of irrigation water resources in the Upstream Musi of Kepahiang Regency. Variables in the Equation Wald Parameter B S.E. df Sig. Exp(B) Constants Age (X1) Education (X2) Size of Household (X3) Land area (X4) Knowledge about IJL of irrigation water resources (X5) -1.173 Demographic history (X6) Role in irragation maintanance (X7) Farming income (X8) Status of land ownership (X9) Distance rice fields to river (X10) Model Summary Step -2 Log likelihood 1 74.529 -3.617 0.018 0.234 -0.443 -3.317 3.002 0.030 0.372 0.311 4.415 0.688 0.670 0.630 0.584 0.658 0.001 1.451 0.352 0.394 2.028 0.564 2.910 0.604 4.473 7.900 0.000 8.472 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.228 0.553 0.530 0.154 0.452 0.088c 0.437 0.034b 0.005a 0.996 0.004a 0.027 0.982 1.263 0.642 0.036 0.312 0.594 3.790 5.161 0.997 1.003 -0.521 1.332 1.641 -0.003 0.003 Cox and Snell R Square 0.300 Omnibus Tests of Model Coefficients Chi-square 35.687 Hosmer and Lemeshow Test Chi-square 4.898 Nagelkerke R Square 0.449 Step 1 Df 10 Sig. 0.000 Model Step 1 Df 8 Sig. 0.768 Model Variable(s) entered on step 1: X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, X9, dan X10. Notes : a =  <1%; b =  < 5%; c =  < 10% Table 2. Observation Value and Expectations on Possibilities of Willingness to Pay IJL SDAI. Observe Expected Wilingness Corrected (Persent) Unwilling Willing Step 1 Wilingness Unwilling willing 10 4 14 72 82.0 41.7 94.7 Overall corrected value (%)

  13. 532 Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 more, the farming acceptance factor determines the participation in the willingness to pay of environ- mental services fee of irrigation water resource pay- ments. The willingness to pay can be increased through several efforts which increase the accep- tance of lowland rice farming. The higher level of acceptance of perennial planting rice farming gener- ates the higher level of farmer participation in the willingness to pay of environmental services fee of irrigation water resource payments which is 1.641 times. This approach happens because the farmers who have a high level of farm acceptance tend to have a higher awareness and willingness to pay for environmental services fee of irrigation water re- source payments. The other research showed that the number of external parameters responds to en- vironmental service fee payments to the environ- mental service providers such as household income and opportunities for livelihood diversification, payment rates, and opportunity costs, land area and ownership (Bremer et al., 2014). The distance between the paddy field to the riv- ers is the key factor which determines the participa- tion of farmer in the willingness to pay of environ- mental services fee of irrigation water resource pay- ments. This is because the distance of rice field to river determine the water QQA. The long-distance generate low water QAA which increase the will- ingness to pay environmental services fee of irriga- tion water resource payments which hopefully ful- filled to their irrigated rice field. Koehler (2015) re- ported that the success of Handpumps related to the given opportunity cost in the use of alternative wa- ter pumps which provide water service in the coun- tryside. The general users tend to pay higher fees than walking over the longer distances. Determination of the farmer paying YAffTP (Affordability to pay model) ability model (environmental service fee of irrigation water resource payments in Upper Musi River Basin in Kepahiang district The factor which affects the ability of farmers to pay the environmental services fee of irrigation water resource payments YaffTP (Affordability to pay model) were further analyzed by multinomial logis- tic regression with four (4) categories. The analysis results showed that only four (4) factors have the ability effects to initiate the environmental services fee of irrigation water resource payments in the up- per Musi River Basin in Kepahiang District which are Education (X2), Demographic history (X6), Land Ownership status (X9), and the distance of paddy field (X10). Table 3 detailed showed the Chi-Square values obtained from the results of statistical analy- sis and the values of probability strength. Table 4 showed that the success rate of the total forecasting multinomial logit regression model of 97.4% is able to correctly predict. According to the prediction of willingness to pay.the willingness to Table 3. Analysis results of the influence of socioeconomic factors on the ability level of YaffTP (Affordability to pay model) paying farmers of environmental services fee of irrigation water resource paymentsin the upper Musi River Basin in Kepahiang District. Socioeconomic factor Model Fitting Criteria-2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model Likelihood Ratio Tests Chi-Square df Sig. Constants Age (X1) Education (X2) Size of Household (X3) Land area (X4) Knowledge about environmental services fee of irrigation water resources (X5) Demographic history (X6) Role in irragation maintanance (X7) Farming income (X8) Status of land ownership (X9) Distance rice fields to river (X10) Description: (a) Reduce Models (Constants) and (b) Unexpected variables 0.314a 2.794b 38.173 0.091b 0.046b 7.543b 0.000 2.480 37.859 . . 7.229 0 2 6 2 2 2 . 0.289 0.000 . . 0.027 34.152 0.006b 0.036b 38.777 107.622 33.838 . . 38.463 107.308 2 4 2 4 2 0.000 . . 0.000 0.000

  14. REFLIS ET AL 533 pay of Rp.150,000.-.Rp.180,000.andRp.120,000 can be correctly predicted with the percentages of 97.6%, 95.0%, and 100%, respectively. Thus, the model of farmer’s ability to pay the environmental services fee of irrigation water resource payment is statistically set into three (3) categories which shows reliable predictive behavior. The analysis of farmer’s willingness to pay (WTP) to contribute paying the environmental ser- vices fee of irrigation water resource payment in the upper Musi river basin,Kepahiang district. In this study.the contingent valuation method (CVM) approach was used to analyze the farmer’s willingness to pay on the participation in paying the environmental services fee of irrigation water re- source payment in the upper Musi river basin in Kepahiang district. The results of the implementa- tion of five (5) step in the CVM method are as fol- lows resource services as the implication of those de- clines. In addition, the respondent obtained an over- view of the hypothetical situation which was built in an effort to improve the QQA of irrigation water in the upper Musi river basin area of Kepahiang dis- trict. 2. The willingness to pay obtained bid The technique which was used in this study was dichotomous choice which offers respondent farm- ers a certain amount of money willing to pay to get the value of irrigation water and asked if they want to pay of not the amount of money to contribute to environmental services fee of irrigation water re- source payment in the upper Musi river basin of Kepahiang district. 3. Estimated average value of willingness to pay (EWTP) The estimation of the willingness to pay the average (EWTP) is calculated based on the data on the distri- bution of WTP respondent in which obtained by dividing the number of given WTP with the total number of the respondent who is willing to pay. The result of the calculation of the respondent EWTP value is Rp.168,947.37 per planting season. The distribution of WTP value of the respondent can be detailed seen in Table 5. 1. Hypotetical market formation All the respondents were given by the scenarios re- garding to the statements which describe the cur- rent state of the environment and the condition of the irrigation water resource network nowadays and future in which there will be a decline in QQA resulting in the implementation of economic instru- ment as the form of payment for irrigation water Table 4. Free variable prediction capability of YaffTP (Affordability to pay model) level of farmers paying the environ- mental services fee of irrigation water resource payments (Rp.) in the upper Musi river basin in Kepahiang district. Prediction Observation 150,000 180,000 210,000 150,000 180,000 210,000 Overall Percentage 41 1 0 1 0 0 14 97.6% 95.0% 100.0% 97.4% 19 0 55.3% 26.3% 18.4% Table 5. The analysis result of environmental services fee of irrigation water resource in the upper Musi river basin of Kepahiang district. WTP Respondent (people) % WTP x EWTP (WTP x %) % Population Total WTP (WTP average × % Population) Respondent Respondent 150,000 180,000 210,000 250,000 Total 42 20 14 0 76 0.55 0.26 0.18 0 1.00 6,300,000 3,600,000 2,940,000 0 12,840,000 82,894.74 47,368.42 38,684.21 0 168,947.37 2,094.47 997.37 698.16 0 3,790.00 314,171,052.6 179,526,315.8 146,613,157.9 0 640,310,526.3

  15. 534 Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 The result showed that the values turn out to be above the value of the irrigation management fee that was once applied in this area which is equal to one (1) can of rice (approximately Rp.150,000.00). According to one of the respondents (Mr. Zainal Amirsyah) previously, there is the contribution of KP2A which amount to one can of rice per planting season paid to “Uluulu”. The valuation or economic valuation of the natu- ral resource commodities reveals the alleged eco- nomic value of the environment or irrigation water resources and it is an estimate of the decline in indi- rect irrigation water resource QQA (passive use) (Fauzi, 2010). This value is determined by the will- ingness and the ability of farmers to consider profile and loss and pay water natural resource irrigation prices, as well as the conservation and maintenance efforts. The willingness to pay method can provide the consideration for determining policies and ob- jectives for managing natural and environmental resources in a sustainable manner (Cheung and Jim. 2014; Hizami et al., 2014; Kamri, 2013; Kolahi et al., 2013; Sekar et al., 2013). of respondent farmers to be willing to pay for envi- ronmental services fee of irrigation water resource are the knowledge of environmental services fee of irrigation water resource, roles in the irrigation maintenance, farming receipts, and the distance of rice field to rivers. The distance between paddy fields to rivers, land ownership status, education, and demographic history influenced the ability of farmers to pay the environmental services fee of the irrigation water resource. The average value of WTP that the respondents wanted was RP.168,947.33 per planting season, while the total value of the willing- ness to pay of farming communities in the upper watershed area of Kepahiang district Rp.640, 310, 526.30 per planting season. References Ramlan, M.A., Radam, A., Yacob, M.R. and Yahya, N.A. 2011. Willingness to pay towards the sustainability of Forest Research Institute Malaysia’s (FRIM’s) canopy walkway. International Journal of Business. Management and Social Sciences. 2(3) : 85-92. Bremer, L.L., Farley, K.A. and Lopez-Carr, D. 2014. What factors influence participation in payment for eco- system services programs? An evaluation of Ecuador’s SocioPáramo program. Land Use Policy. 36: 122–133. Caro, A.B., Corbera, E., Christoph, K.N. and Almeida, L.L. 2015. We are the city lungs”: Payments for ecosys- tem services in theoutskirts of Mexico City. Journal Land Use Policy. 43 : 138–148. Cheung, L.T.O. and Jim, C.Y. 2014. Expectations and Will- ingness-to-Pay for ecotourism services in Hong Kong’s Conservation Areas. International Journal of Sustainable Development. 21 (2) : 149–159. Dipokusumo, B. 2011. Model Partisipatif Perhutanan Sosial Menuju Pengelolaan Hutan Berkelanjutan. (Kasus Pembangunan Hutan Kemasyarakatan Pada Kawasan Hutan Lindung Di Pulau Lombok). Bogor: Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor. (Disertasi Tidak Dipublikasikan). Fauzi, A. 2010. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Alam Dan Lingkungan (Teori Dan Aplikasi). Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Rodríguez-de-Francisco, J.C. and Budds, J. 2015. Payments for environmental services and control over conser- vation of natural resources: The role of public and private sectors in the conservation of the Nima wa- tershed. Colombia. Ecological Economics. 117 : 295– 302. Guntoro, F.X.P.J. 2003. Analisis Model Kemauan Dan Kemampuan Bayar Petani Atas Iuran Pelayanan Irigasi. Tesis. Program Studi Magister Ilmu Ekonomi 4. Total WTP Willingness to pay is the amount or value of money that farmers are willing to pay for goods and ser- vices and measure the willingness of farmers to sac- rifice their income (Aswad et al., 2011). The aggre- gate willingness to pay value or total willingness to pay (TWTP) of respondent farmers in environmen- tal services fee of irrigation water resource pay- ments in the upper Musi river basin of Kepahiang regency which is based on the willingness to pay respondents distribution using formula 3. The result of calculation of the total TWTP value is Rp. 640,310,526.30.- per planting season. 5. The evaluation of CVM implementation Based on the results of the multiple regression analy- sis it is quite good because the R2 value is equal to 65.5 percent. This study deals with the natural and environmental resources that can be tolerated up to 15 percent (Masrun et al., 2016). CVM is one of the most important concepts in WTP. Aswad (2011) con- sider that WTP is important to develop a valid and optimal price estimation strategy. Conclusion The factors that significantly influence the decision

  16. REFLIS ET AL 535 Studi Pemangunan. Semarang: Program Pascasarjana Universitas Diponegoro. Hayes, T., Murtinho, F. and Wolff, H. 2015. Analysis an Institutional Analysis of Payment for Environmen- tal Services on Collectively Managed Lands in Ecua- dor. Journal of Ecological Economics. 118 : 81 –89. He, J. and Sikor, T. 2015. Notions of Justice in Payments for Ecosystem Services: Insights from China’s Slop- ing Land Conversion Program in Yunnan Province. Land Use Policy Journal. 43 : 207–216. Hizami, N., Rusli, M. and Alias, R. 2014. Valuing natural resources of ecotourism destination in Taman Negara Sungai Relau. Pahang. Malaysia. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 8(3) : 416–425. Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshow, S. 1989. Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Kamri, T. 2013. Willingness to pay for conservation of natural resources in the Gunung Gading National Park. Sarawak. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sci- ences. 101 : 506–515. Koehler, J., Thomson, P. and Hope, R. 2015. Pump-Prim- ing Payments for Sustainable Water Services in Rural Africa. World Development. 74 : 397–411. Kolahi, M., Sakai, T., Moriya, K. and Aminpour, M. 2013. Ecotourism potentials for fiancing parks and pro- tected areas: A perspective from Iran’s Parks. Jour- nal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. 9(1) : 144–152. Lapeyrea, R., Pirard, R. and Leimona, B. 2015. Payments for environmental services in Indonesia: What if eco- nomic signals were lost in translation?. Land Use Policy. 46 : 283–291. Leimona, B., van Noordwijk, M., de Groot, R. and Leemans, R. Fairly efficient. efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia. Ecosystem Services. 12 : 16–28. Masrun, Ruslan, M., Mahyudin, D. and Rizali, A. 2016. Analysis of Application of Concept Eco-Airport Using Meteode Willinggness to Pay in Syamsudin Noor Airport Banjarmasin South Kalimantan. Enviro Scienteae. 12 (3) : 247-255. Matthies, B.D., Kalliokoski, T., Ekholm, T., Hoen, H.F. and Valsta, L.T. 2015. Risk. reward. and payments for ecosystem services: A portfolio approach to ecosys- tem services and forestland investment. Ecosystem Services. 16 : 1 –12. McElwee, P., Nghiem, T., Le, H., Vu, H. and Tran, N. 2014. Payments for environmental services and contested neoliberalisation in developing countries: A case study from Vietnam. Journal of Rural Studies. 36 : 423- 440. Meyer, C., Reutter, M., Matzdorf, B., Sattler, C. and Schomers, S. 2015. Design rules for successful gov- ernmental payments for ecosystem services: Taking agri-environmental measures in Germany as an ex- ample. Journal of Environmental Management. 157:146- 159. Mombo, F., Lusambo, L., Speelman, S., Buysse, J., Munishi, P. and van Huylenbroeck, G. 2014. Scope for intro- ducing payments for ecosystem services as a strat- egy to reduce deforestation in the Kilombero wet- lands catchment area. Forest Policy and Economics. 38: 81–89. Mudaca, J.D., Toshiyuki, T.A., Yamada, M.B., Onwona, S. and Agyeman, B.L. 2015. Household Participation in Payments for Ecosystem Services: A CaseStudy From Mozambique Forest Policy and Economics. Forest Policy And Economics. 55 : 21–27. Muradian, R. and Cardenas, J.C. 2015. From Market Fail- ures to Collective Action Dilemmas: Reframing Environmental Governance Challenges in Latin America And Beyond.Ecological Economics. 120 : 358- 365. Newton, P., Nichols, E.S., Endo, W. and Peres, C.A. 2012. Consequences of Actor Level Livelihood Heteroge- neity for Additionality in a Tropical Forest Payment for Environmental Services Programme With an Undifferentiated Reward Structure. Global Environ- mental Change. 22 : 127-136. Rozak, A. 2010. Peranan Lahan Basah (Wetlands) dalam Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS). Makalah Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai. Program Pasca Sarjana. Program Studi Manjemen Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. Salim, E. 2005. Pengertian Dan Konsep Umum Skema Pembayaran Dan Imbal Jasa Lingkungan. (Pembayaran Dan Imbal Jasa Lingkungan Dalam Konteks Indonesia). Jakarta: Laporan Lokakarya Nasional Strategi Pengembangan Pembayaran DanImbal Jasa Lingkungan Di Indonesia. Sekar, N., Weiss, J.M. and Dobson, A. 2013. Willingnessto- pay and the perfect safari: Valuation and cultural evaluation of safari package attributes in the Serengeti and Tanzanian Northern Circuit. Ecologi- cal Economic. 97 : 34–41. Sihite, J. 2001. Evaluasi Dampak Erosi Tanah. Model Pendekatan Ekonomi Lingkungan dalam Perlindungan DAS: Kasus Sub-DAS Besai DAS Tulang Bawang Lampung. Southeast Asia Policy Research Working Paper. No. 11. ICRAF SE-Asia Southeast Asian Regional Research Programme. Singh, N.M. 2015. Methodological and Ideological Op- tions Payments for ecosystem services and the gift paradigm: Sharing the burden and joy of environ- mental care. Ecological Economics. 117 : 53–61. Sugiyono, 2009. Metode penelitian kuantitatif kualitatif dan R & D. Bandung: CV Alfabeta. Sutopo, M.F. 2011. Analisis Kesediaan Membayar Jasa Lingkungan Dalam Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air Minum Terpadu Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus Das Cisadane Hulu). J. Tek. Ling. 12 (1) : 17 – 23.

  17. 536 Eco. Env. & Cons. 25 (2) : 2019 Valiant, R.R. 2014. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air Dan Lahan Di Jawa : Studi Kasus Di Wilayah Kerja Perusahaan Umum (Perum) Jasa Tirta I Di Daerah Aliran Sungai (Das) Brantas Dan Bengawan Solo 1. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pengelolaan Das Terpadu Untuk Kesejahteraan Masyarakat Malang. 30 September 2014. Malang: Balai Penelitian Teknologi Kehutanan Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (BPTKPDAS). Whittington, D. and Pagiola, S. 2012. Using Contingent Valuation in the Design of Payments for Environ- mental Services Mechanisms: A Review and Assess- ment. The World Bank Research Observer. 27(2) : 261- 287. Yeo, S.C., Awang, N.A.G. and Lee, P.C. 2013. The Estima- tion of Economic Benefis of Urban Trees Using Con- tingent Valuation Method in Tasik Perdana. Kuala Lumpur. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 36(1) : 01-114 . Yulianti, Y. 2012. Analisis Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Pelaksanaan Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) Mandiri Perkotaan Di Kota Solok. Padang: Program Pasca Sarjana Universitas Andalas.