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Growing Pains

Growing Pains

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Growing Pains

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  1. Growing Pains

    Chapter: The South and the West Transformed
  2. Objectives Explain the concept of the New South. Account for the rise of the Bourbons to power in the South and explain their impact on the South. Discuss the causes and process of disfranchisement of blacks in the South. Compare the views of Washington and Du Bois on the place of blacks in American life. Describe the Indian wars and explain the new Indian policy of 1887.
  3. Objectives Account for the rise and decline of the cattle industry. Assess the problems of farming on the western frontier. Appraise the environmental impacts of farming in the South and mining in the West. Understand the importance of Turner’s theory of the significance of the frontier in American history.
  4. The “New South”
  5. Old South New South Secessionist Plantation agriculture- Government run by the planter aristocracy Dependent upon slave labour The U.S. was no longer two separate nations -- Southerners had erased the Mason-Dixon Line The Southern economy had changed -- industrialization had replaced plantation agriculture Small farmers dominate Diversified economy Race relations had changed -- blacks were now partners in the "New South” Henry Grady and concept of the New South
  6. Fresh Vision Cotton was not King Agriculture was not sufficient South follow the pattern of the North Diversify the economy Widespread education Vocational training
  7. Economic Growth: Cotton Mills Expansion in textile production From 1880 to 1900 cotton mills in the South grew 161 to 400
  8. Labour in the Mills Mill workers were majority women and children African-Americans worked in the mills as unskilled labours Mill owners justified discrimination Presence deterred the formation unions
  9. Economic Growth: Tobacco Antebellum South grew but did not process tobacco Duke family and Durham, NC Factory in1872 produced125,000lbs a year Advertising; mass production of cigarettes Creation and American Tobacco Company By 1900 the Southern profits for the industry was 55 million a year Breakup of American Tobacco Company
  10. Coal production grew form 5 million tons in 1875 to 49 million tons in 1900 Lumbering was a thriving industry after 1870 as need for housing grew. Mining and Lumber
  11. Agriculture Old and New South still underdeveloped Shortage of cash King Cotton still alive Southern farmers Worked by the landless
  12. Sharecropping Tenancy Owned tools Owned animals Had a line of credit Allowed a larger share of the crops than sharecropping Did not own land Owned their labour Worked on owner’s land for supplies and share of crops Crop-lien system- country merchants allow purchase of equipment for a lien on crops Perpetual perennial debt Environmental impact of tenancy Leaching of soil nutrients Extensive use of fertilizer Left as the land lost its fertility
  13. Bourbon Redeemers Forgot nothing and learned nothing Referred to as redeemers Save south from Northern domination Purely rural economy Politically allied with northern conservatives Economically allied with northern capitalist
  14. Economic Policies Retrenchment and Frugality Slashed state expenditures for public goods Pro-tax exemption for business Convict Leasing Leased convicts out to private enterprise for a state fee Supplied workers to railroad, mining, lumbering and farming ventures Abusive and detrimental to prisoner health Most prisoners were African-American
  15. Economic Policies Continued Repudiation of Confederate debts in some states Justification: corruption and extravagance of reconstruction governments Positive contributions of the Bourbons Established railroad commissions to regulated rates for commercial transport Established boards of agriculture, public health, agriculture and mechanical colleges, teacher-training, schools women’s college and state colleges for African-Americans
  16. Race Relations Race relations Bourbon–African-American political compatibility African-Americans sat in state legislatures of South Carolina until 1900 and Georgia until 1908 Variety of color lines in social relations Less strict immediately after Civil War Segregation appeared in schools, churches, hotels and rooming houses Segregation more sporadic in places of public accommodation
  17. Disenfranchising African-Americans “Negrophobia” in 1890s Resentment of black progress Keeping Negro in their place Divisions caused by populism African-American vote become a balance of power Bourbon sought to end the balance by disenfranchising blacks Techniques used Resident requirements Tenant farmers Convicted of Crimes Taxes and Poll tax Literacy “Grandfather clause” Results Few blacks were qualified to vote 1896 Louisiana saw 130,000 Blacks registered to vote by 1900 only 5,320
  18. Spread of Segregation Jim Crow Social Segregation Railway cars Civil rights cases, 1883 Could not extend to individual action
  19. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 New Orleans Homer Plessy refused to leave a whites-only railroad car Convicted of violating the law Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal was constitutional
  20. Violence Against Blacks From 1890 to 1899 lynchings in the U.S. averaged 188 per year, 82 percent which occurred in the South. Whites constituted 32% of reported lynchings From 1900 to 1909 the U.S averaged 93 lynchings per year, 92 percent which occurred in the South. Whites constituted 11 percent of reported lynchings
  21. Black Response to Racism Left the South Accommodation ( “walked the quite life”) Black culture Churches Social gathering Political activities Black-owned businesses
  22. Ida B. Wells: Anti-Lynching Crusader Describe lynching as ritualistic terror designed to destroy black economic and political power 3 friends lynched Alluded to the idea that white women might consent to a relationship with black men
  23. Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois Born to a enslaved mother and a white father Educated at Hampton Institute Leader of Tuskegee Foremost black educator in the nation Accommodation to segregation 1895 speech in Atlanta Argued that blacks should have first have an economic base before striving for social equality Native of Massachusetts Earned a Ph.D at Harvard Distinguished scholar and author W. Du Bois Criticisms of Washington “Ceaseless agitation” for civil rights More than a vocational education for African-Americans Washington and Du Bois
  24. The New West Great Expectations Opportunity Optimism and Settlement Personal Freedom Conflicts Vastly Different Rain didn’t follow the plow Indian and Mexican resistance
  25. Migration to the West Native-born Americans Foreign immigrants Canada German Scandinavians Irish Chinese Exodusters “Pap” Singleton Kansas and Oklahoma By 1890 about 520,000 African-Americans lived west of the Mississippi River “Buffalo soldiers” Civil War vets from Louisiana and Kentucky Job on the frontier Southern whites fear of Black Migration
  26. Mining on the Frontier California Forty-niners Colorado Dakotas Deadwood Nevada Comstock Lode $300 million in gold and sliver Camp followers Vigilante Justice Orderly gov’t Territories States
  27. Mining and the environment First waves Sifted, panning Hydraulic mining Barren canyons Destruction of farmland Protests Lack of legislation Woodruff v. North Bloomfield
  28. Prostitution on the Frontier Who were prostitutes? Life of prostitutes? Violence Drug addiction
  29. Indian Wars 1870s-1890s Establishment of the Indian Peace Commission, 1867 Policy of two large reservations Agreements with the Indians in 1867 and 1868 Continued resistance of Indians Custer Expedition 1874 Miner began to wander in Sioux land and hunting grounds in violation of the a treaty The Great Sioux War 15 months and 15 battles Massacre at Little Bighorn Custer's and his men (210) defeated Indians returned to hunting Conquest of Sioux and others Military up their campaign and forced Sioux and allies onto reservations Significance of Chief Joseph and Nez Percé Peaceful tried to avoid war Retreated but caught 30 miles from Canadian border Geronimo 1886 capture Ghost Dance movement Wounded Knee
  30. Demise of the buffalo Intensive harvesting Commercial hunting 1750- 30 million 1850- less than 10 million 1900- few hundred Environmental causes Drought Competition from other animals (grazing, disease) Indian hunters Guns and Horses Profit
  31. Indian Policy Stirrings for reform in Indian policy Eastern view of Indian slaughter Role of Helen Hunt Jackson Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 Concept of new policy Americanize Broke up the reservation into individual tracts Land held in trust for 20 years after which a title and U.S. citizenship was given Burk Act 1906 Impact of new policy Loss of land
  32. Cattle and Cowboys Development of the open range War’s increased demand for beef Renewal of long drives after the Civil War Joseph McCoy Features of the cow town Trade with the East Refrigerated train cars Marketing campaigns Joseph Glidden and barbed wire
  33. Farmers and the Land Farm life on the Great Plains Difficulties Importance of women Advances in equipment Bonanza farms Diversified small farms
  34. Violence on the Frontier Functions of violence Resolve disputes Protection Masculine honor Variety of violent conflicts
  35. End of the Frontier 1890 census No continuous frontier line Frederick Jackson Turner “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” origin of the distinctive aggressive, violent, innovative and democratic features of the American character has been the American Frontier