Fisheries What is included Generalized history Declines in salmon populations Indian Fishing Rights Public Policy Battles related to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon Where are we headed?
Diverse Species & Locations Salmon: Chinook, sockeye, silver, steelhead, other - Aquaculture Groundfish Clams – Razor, butter/steamer, geoduck Oysters Mussels Shrimp Dungeness Crab Albacore Tuna Herring and Smelt Scallops
Generalized Early History - Salmon Early packing in salt Steam canning (1860’s) - explosion of salmon trapping Overharvesting in early days Logging impacts on habitat Lack of harvest regulation Initiative 77 International Joint Commission
Fishing at Celilo Falls, Columbia River (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Scow Fish Wheel Columbia River (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Fishermen Horse Seining, Sand Island, Columbia River (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Brailing Salmon From a Fish Trap, Possibly Puget Sound (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Scow Load of Salmon On Way to Cannery, Puget Sound (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Canned Salmon Being Unloaded (1913) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Purse Seine Fishing Boat, Puget Sound (n.d.) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Issaquah Salmon Hatchery (1935) Source: UW Libraries Digital Collections - Industries & Occupations Collection
Declines in Salmon Populations Research started in the 1920’s leads by the 1960’s to knowledge of key factors: Dam construction High Seas Fishery Habitat damage Lack of catch regulation near to spawning regions Early response: 200 mile fishery economic zone Recent “salmon wars” U.S. & B.C. fishers
Indian Fishing Rights: First Puget Sound, but now everywhere Treaties from the 1850’s The Boldt Decision: 50/50 split of harvests among native & non-native fishers Reactions from Washington State, white Fishers - both recreational and commercial Subsequent rulings: principles of habitat restoration & no further degredation
Dams and Declining Columbia River Harvests Initial concept - fish ladders Impact of reservoirs on movement downstream of juvenile fish: warm water, dam turbines, use of barges, spring “freshet” Listing of stocks as endangered or threatened Interior Columbia River Basin Ecosystem Management Project ??Breaching of Lower Snake River Dams??
The General Strategy for Columbia-Snake River Salmon Stocks: 4-H • Avoid extinction • Achieve recovery Via the 4 H’s: Habitat, Hydro, Hatchery, Harvest Jan. 25 2006: Jim Connaughton, Chairman of White House CEQ proposed reduced hatchery and harvest activity at a major conference in Portland OR
Context: How to Cope with Listing of Salmon Species on the Columbia-Snake River System • Biological Opinions required from USFWS under Endangered Species Act • Development of the “Federal Caucus”- ? A legally mandated but possible fractured marriage? • Litigants, and the 2004 Opinion of FWS • 2004 Biop Remand; 2008 Biop Opinion; 2010 Supplemental Salmon BiOp • Judge Redden in August 2011 remands again; subsequent filings
Agencies In this Consortium: • Federal Caucus Agencies • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - Endangered Species Act (ESA) jurisdiction over anadromous fish; also has a role regulating fisheries. • US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) - ESA jurisdiction over plants, wildlife, and resident fish; also operates and administers hatchery programs and national wildlife refuges. • Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) - markets electricity from federal dams; also has a key role funding fish and wildlife mitigation. • US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) - operates federal dams and locks for multiple uses. • US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) - operates federal dams for multiple uses. • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - implements and enforces the Clean Water Act. • US Forest Service (USFS) - manages the national forest system. • Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - manages 16,233,739 acres of public lands in Oregon and 370,110 acres in Washington for wildlife, recreation, timber harvest, livestock grazing, mineral extraction and other public uses.
From The Federal Caucus Dec. 2011 70-80% Hatchery Fish
From The Federal Caucus Dec. 2011 70-80% Are hatchery Fish
From the Federal Caucus Dec. 2011 70-80% Are hatchery Fish
From The Federal Caucus Dec. 2011 70% to 80% Are Hatchery Fish
From Executive • Summary of 2008 • Biological Opinion • Of NOAA Fisheries, • Adopted by the • Sovereign parties in • Expected to be • In place for at least • 10 years.
February – Judge Redden invites voluntary remand • Action agencies address climate change, toxics, invasive • species, hatchery fish • June – Judge Redden establishes timeline & framework • for evaluating the Supplemental BiOp • The 2008 BiOp was challenged by the State of Oregon • and a group of fishing and conservation groups.
Listing of Puget Sound Salmon Species as Endangered or Threatened First case where urban areas, counties, and state lands are key to restoration Requires coordination with USFS Currently establishment of measurement systems, planning frameworks, strategies for restoration NMFS coordinating planning efforts
In 2013: the players Native American nations Environmental organizations Federal land management agencies Federal power producing agencies (COE; BR) Federal agencies with regulatory power (NWP&CC, NMFS) Fisheries Industry Recreational Sport Fishers State & Local Governments
Where is all this headed? Who knows! Problems extend well beyond salmon (oysters, crabs, bottomfish) The issue extends to Northwest ecosystems - both timber & rangeland Illustration: 1/30/2000 story on bears in Rivers Inlet B.C. Frameworks for solution? NEPA? Endangered Species Act? Congress? International organizations?
Old slides • The next few slides are older, and just archived for historical purposes