BalancedLiteracy By: Jessica Hall Spring 2012 ELED 370/390 Dr. Weber
Table of Contents: Balanced Literacy Reading Stages of reading Factors influencing desire to read Levels of reading Assessments Leveled reading programs Lexile resources Guided reading vs. Basal reading Types of text Text genres Text features Graphic organizers for reading Skills vs. strategies Comprehension Comprehension strategies Fluency Reading rates Writing Stages of developmental progression towards literacy The writing process Graphic organizers for writing Word Study Principles Phonics Phonemic awareness Strategies for word identification Alphabetic principle Consonants and vowels Phonics Concepts Most useful phonics rules Phonograms/ word families Homonyms Strategies and activities for teaching phonics Word sort Synonyms and antonyms Vocabulary Spelling Teaching spelling Spelling lesson ideas Sight words Etymology Resources
What is Balanced Literacy? BalancedLiteracy Reading Writing Word Study
Balanced Literacy A complete teaching approach that balances each of the three target areas of literacy: • Reading • Writing • Word Study
Factors that influence students’ Desire to Read, “D2R”: • A nurturing classroom community – feelings of confidence and success for all students • Choices – student motivation is much higher when they can choose their own reading materials. • Time – Give students plenty of time for independent reading, and listening to text read by the teacher.
Student Reading Levels There are 3 levels of student reading teachers need to be aware of: • Independent Level – The ultimate goal for all readers. • Can read a text with 95% accuracy. (99% is ideal!) • Instructional Level – Where students can read with scaffolding from teacher. • Can read a text with 90-94% accuracy. • Frustration Level – We never want a child to read at this level. If a child is here, go back and find their independent and instructional levels! • Cannot read text with at least 90% accuracy. • The only way to determine a child’s reading level is to assess them! Either formally or informally.
Assessments: Formative (on-going) used to determine individual student’sreading level, andstrengths and weaknesses: Formal Assessments:
Informal Assessments: Assessments should drive instructions
Leveled Reading Programs:Accurately pairing students with books at their individual reading levels.
Grade Level, Guided Reading,DRA, ReadingRecovery andLexile ConversionChartUsed forMatchingstudents to texts at individuallevelsin anyclassroomor school
Accessing Lexile Measures for Texts: • http://www.scholastic.com/bookwizard/ • http://www.lexile.com/fab/ Accessing Lexile suggested book lists by Lexile measure and interests:
Guided Reading vs. Basal Reading Programs Guided Reading: • Assesses students to find their instructional reading levels. • Small groups with teacher guided instruction and scaffolding. • Each group member reads the same text. • Groups may include discussions and specific strategy uses. Basal Reading Program: • Whole group instruction. • All students read the same text. • No differentiated instruction for students at higher or lower reading levels. • “Popcorn” or “Round Robin” reading is common.
Types of Text • Informational books /Expository /Nonfiction: provides detailed information. • Fiction: A narrative about characters trying to overcome something or deal with difficulties. • Poetry: layout and arrangement of words looks different from a page in a story.
Nonfiction Genres: • Informational books – provides facts about a topic. • Alphabet Books – an alphabetically ordered book with pictures and facts • Biographies– written about a specific person’s life.
Nonfiction Text Features: • Headings – the big idea • Photographs & Drawings – Illustrates the big idea • Figures, maps and tables – provides detailed information visually • Margin notes – provides supplemental information • Highlighted vocabulary – identifies key terms • Glossary – assists readers in pronouncing and defining key terms. • Review section – highlights big ideas at the end of a chapter or book • Index – assists reader to identify specific location in text of specific information. • Table of Contents – An outline of the book’s layout.
Graphic Organizers for Nonfiction Description Comparison Sequencing Problem - Solution Cause and Effect • For More Graphic Organizers visit: • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers
Genres of Fiction / Stories: • Modern Literary Tales • Fantastic Stories • Science Fiction • Realistic Fiction • Contemporary Stories • Historical Fiction • Folktales • Fables • Fairytales • Myths • Legends • Tall Tales • Fantasies
Elements of Story Structure • Theme – The underlying meaning of the story the emotional aspect • Plot – sequence of events: • Characters – People or personified animals in the story they are developed through descriptions of: appearance, actions, dialogue and monologue. • Setting: Location, Weather conditions, Time Period (past, present and future) and Time (time of day, passage of time) • Point of View: Who is “telling” the story? • First Person viewpoint – “I” main character is the narrator • Omniscient viewpoint – Author is “”godlike”, seeing and knowing all thoughts of all characters • Limited Omniscient viewpoint – Third person, thoughts of only one character are given • Objective viewpoint – Readers are eyewitness to the story and are confined only to the immediate scene.
Graphic Organizers for Fiction Story Map Character Map Character Comparison Venn Diagrams For More Graphic Organizers visit: • http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers Story Train
Poetry Poetic forms: • Rhymed Verse – various rhyming schemes, limerick • Narrative Poems – tell a story • Haiku – 5-7-5 syllabic pattern, Japanese origin, usually about nature • Free Verse – unrhymed poetry • Odes – celebrate everyday objects, unrhymed • Concrete Poems – poem takes on the shape of the topic Poetic devices: • Assonance – vowel sound repeated • Consonance – consonant sounds are repeated • Imagery – appeals to senses, provokes mental picture • Metaphor – comparison without “like/as” • Onomatopoeia – words that imitate a sound • Repetition – repeated words/phrases for effect • Rhyme – words with the same rime sound • Rhythm – internal beat felt when read aloud • Simile – comparison using “like/as” • Layout – lines, stanzas
Skills vs. Strategies Skill – An automaticprocessing behavior that students use in reading and writing Strategy – A cognitiveproblem-solving behavior that students use in reading and writing.
Comprehension… …is a multifaceted thinking process …is the main purpose for reading …is a reader’s process of using prior experiences and author’s text to construct meaning …gives personal meaning to text …involves skills and strategies used by reader …is NOT possible if student is reading at a frustration level. …is an invisible mental process
Teaching Comprehension Strategies: • Introduce the strategy • Describe the strategy • Model the strategy • Provide opportunities for practice • Provide opportunities for independent application
Fluency: Ability to read text accurately and quickly. Accuracy + Rate = Better Comprehension! Best teaching strategy for improving students’ reading fluency: Provide time for DAILY reading practice.
Reading Rates: Where students should be. Content reading, students should be able to comprehend at this rate:
The 5 Stages ofDevelopmental Progression Towards LiteracyThe “Bump” Example: Stage 1: The child does not know any letters, writing appears to be scribbles.
Stage 2: The child knows some letters but cannot associate them to a specific sound. Stage 3: The child knows letters and sounds, but cannot combine sounds. *Note: This sample has been transcribed for the student. An adult has written what the student said.
Stage 4: The child knows letters and knows that words have vowels. Stage 5: The child can read and spell correctly.
The Writing Process: Stage 1: Prewrite –Think, topic, purpose, brainstorm, organize. Stage 2: Draft – Get ideas on paper Stage 3: Revise – Make changes, get it right Stage 4: Edit – Check it out, grammar, spelling, word usage Stage 5: Publish – Celebrate, Share, Display
Graphic Organizers for Writing Story Star Brainstorming Web Hamburger Writing Stories Grow Main idea and supporting details Topic Organizer
Principles of Word Study: Word Study: approach to spelling and vocabulary growth. • First step: Assess to see what a student can do and does know. To keep a student’s attention, lessons must be at their instructional level. • Begin with obvious contrasts, such as beginning sounds for example b vs. t. • Move from a general gross discrimination to a more specific one, e.g. –ee vs. –ea. • Don’t hide exceptions – point out “odd ball” words, give them a place. • Avoid rules – let students figure them out for themselves. • Model and demonstrate expectations of students • Automaticity – accuracy • Relate to meaningful texts
Phonics Phonics is the predictable relationship between phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (symbols). “Weberism”: Phonics = sound/symbol relationship. In the English language there are: 44 Phonemes and they are represented by 26 graphemes (the alphabet).
A consciousness of individual sounds, phonemes, that make up spoken language Children’s basic understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds. There is an important relationship between phonemic awareness and reading acquisition. (www.tyrone.k12.pa.us...)
Strategies for Identifying Unfamiliar Words: • Reading Strategy Buddies: • Decode by Analogy • Use phonograms (word families) • Recognize rimes in words • Word wall words • Apply known phonics rules • Syllabic Analysis – break down a multisyllabic word into syllables then use known phonics rules for each syllable. • 4 Cueing systems: • Phonological – sound • Semantic – meaning • Syntactic – structure • Pragmatic – social/cultural use
The Alphabetic Principle: Suggests there should be a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes (Tompkins).
Consonants & Vowels: Most consonants represent a single sound consistently; there are some exceptions. Consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z Vowels often represent several sounds. Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
PhonicsConcepts A page from: Chrysanthemum By: Kevin Henkes Affix: Suffix aka Inflectional Ending – bound morpheme at the end of a root word. Consonant blend: 2 or more consonants that are blended, both sounds are heard. Consonant digraph: combination of 2 consonants that represent one speech sound. That morning the students were introduced to Mrs. Twinkle, the music teacher. Her voice was like something out of a dream, as was everything else about her. The students were speechless. They thought Mrs. Twinkle was an indescribable wonder. They went out of their way to make a nice impression. Vowel digraph: combination of 2 vowels that represent one speech sound. (Vowel patterns) Vowel marker: silent vowel used to made the vowel sound long. Affix: Prefix: bound morpheme at the beginning of a root word. Vowel Dipthong: two adjacent vowels each of which contributes to the sound heard.
Phonograms: • One-syllable words can be divided into two parts: The onset and the rime. • This is also known as “Word families” Example: -all • all • ball • call • fall • hall • mall • stall • tall • wall
Homonyms:Words that confuse Homophones: words that sound the same but are spelled differently ant - aunt board – bored creak – creek dear - deer mail – male sea – see sew – so – sow toe – tow wait - weight Homographs: • words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently bow conduct live minute present read record wind
Strategies/Activities to teach Phonics: • Elkonin Boxes: used to teach students how to segment words. • Blending sounds: /d/ /u/ /k/ • Word Sorts: depending on instructional goals, Can be used for: • Rhyming words • Consonant sounds • Spelling patterns • Syllabication • Root words / affixes • Conceptual Relationships • Phonograms/ word families: -onset (d) + the rime (-uck)
Sample Word Sort: Word list: chick shell she child show cheese Have students sort words by the beginning sounds of ch- or sh- ch- chick child cheese sh- she shell show
Synonyms Words that mean the same thing: cool, chilly, frigid, Antonyms Words that are opposites: hot-cold, loud-quiet, big-little
Vocabulary Levels of Word Knowledge: Unknown word – Student does not know the word Initial Recognition – Student has seen it and can pronounce it Partial Word Knowledge – Student know parts or one meaning Full Word Knowledge – Student is an "Expert” on the word 3 Tiers of Vocabulary: 1. Basic words- Common words, used socially and in most homes 2. Academic Words – Instructional words 3. Specialized Words – Technical words, content specific, “jargon”
Spelling: Weber’s Stages of Spelling Development in Children: • Phonetic Spelling: Students spell the word exactly how it sounds. E.g.: mune = money • Invented Spelling Conventional Spelling U R A GRL(should be accepted) You are a girl