Reading is about balance Phonological Awareness & Decoding Meaning & Thinking
Connection Language Reading Thinking
Major Components of Reading Instruction • Phonological awareness – no letters attached, just sounds • Phonics – hear the sound and map to the letter • Vocabulary development – we need to teach about words explicitly “What’s another word for big?” • Reading fluency – Read accurately, with expression and understanding • Reading comprehension – our ultimate goal!
Reading is not a natural process • Specific areas of the brain are used to process language. • The brain analyses text at three major levels. • The visual features of the words and letters; • The phonological representation of those words; and • The meanings of the words and sentences. Reading is not developmental or natural, it is learned.
To read, children must: decode text translate it into a speech form, and understand spoken language. These skills are the foundations for reading comprehension (Wren, 2008).
Phonological or Phonemic Awareness? Both Phonological and Phonemic Awareness focus on the SOUND elements of spoken words.
Word Awareness, e.g. spoken language is made up of words; words are representations of objects (cat), emotions (love) and concepts (height); words can rhyme Syllable Awareness, e.g. some words have a single syllable and others have more than one Onset and Rime Awareness, e.g. single syllable words are made up of onsets and rimes Phonemic Awareness, e.g. words are made up of individual sounds or phonemes. What’s involved in Phonological Awareness?
A child with phonological awareness can: Identify and make oral rhymes 2. Hear, identify and play with the sounds in words. 3. Hear the syllables in words
To support children’s development of phonological awareness, we… we: Use songs, rhyming games, nursery rhymes, and rhyming poetry Willoughby Wallaby Woo Play
Play games with the sounds in words • Talk with children about words and sounds in everyday situations • Choose books to read aloud that focus on sounds & repetition
Puppetry Strategies 1. Draw attention to phoneme articulation. Use slow & exaggerated pronunciation. 2. Use larger unit of print (sentences/whole words) as well as individual alphabet sounds. How do I change with each individual sound? Opening Letter contains words with focus sound
Dear Junior 12, Listen to these words. Can you tell me the rhyming pattern? From Mrs. Cardullo Dear Junior 12, Listen to this rhyme. Which words do you think rhyme? Can you point out the word “ran”? From Mrs. Cardullo Hickory, Dickory, Dock Hickory, dickory, dock, The mouse ran up the clock, The clock struck one, The mouse ran down! Hickory, dickory, dock. Opening Letters
Cut and match the rhyming pictures. red Cut out and stick the pictures back together. Write the animal in the box and write how many syllables are in the animal’s name. 3. Use visual pictures instead of words for syllable segmentation and rhyming component. This prevents students from straining to recall the words presented. How many syllables? Animal: How many syllables? Animal: How many syllables?
Syllables Robot Walk Chin Check “Check it with your chin” by holding your hand under your chin and counting how many times your chin hits your hand when you say a word. Syllable Snake game and Syllable Sam
Hands-on Games & use of concrete objects. Rolling the ball to represent number of phonemes/syllables. Magnetic letters to represent phonemes or syllables in words. Using marbles in containers to represent number of phonemes/syllables.
Using music to tap out individual phonemes in words. Reading Rods Word Makers and Sentence Makers
Rhyme match & Vowel Snap Commercially produced Literacy Games Manipulable Reading Books & Games
When to teach… Research has shown that phonological awareness skills are best when taught in short bursts. No longer than 10 minutes at a time. No more than 3 times a day, so great as time fillers and can be done anywhere even in the car. “”Hey diddle, diddle, the cat and the fiddle.”
Some activities... • Live spelling
Resources • 1. Yourself • 2. A present for you handout from VSSS • Books • Games, games and more games. • VSSS DVD
“Reading furnishes the mind only with material of knowledge. It is thinking that makes what we read ours.” C.S. Lewis
Why teach reading strategies? “Once thought of as the natural result of decoding plus oral language, comprehension is now viewed as a much more complex process involving knowledge, experience, thinking and teaching.” (Linda Fielding and P. David Pearson, 1994)
Check Understanding Build Fluency Sense It Ask Questions Reading is Thinking Connect To Text Making Inferences/ Draw Conclusions Decide What’sImportant Expand Vocabulary Summarize/ Synthesize Predict and Prove
The Teacher ... • Intentional, responsive and adaptive • Explicitly teaches comprehension • Provides powerful modelling through think aloud • Understands that modelling cannot be scripted- adjust it and try again • Provides a predictable framework • Is relentless!
Research: Struggling Year 6 Students Students typically reading at Year 3 level • Group 1: half the students tutored with Year 6 texts (core reading, social studies texts etc.) • Group 2: half the students tutored with Year 3 texts • Few gains with first group • Significant gains with the second group O' Connor, R. E., Bell, K. M., Harty, K. R., Larkin, L. K., Sackor, S. M., & Zigmond, N. (2002). Teaching reading to poor readers in the intermediate grades: A comparison of text difficulty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 474–485
“High Success Reading” “Any school plan that does not put high-success texts in struggling readers' hands all day long is not only ignoring the research but also creating and perpetuating large numbers of struggling readers.” Allington, R. L. (2011). What At-Risk Readers Need. Educational Leadership Vol 68 No 6.
‘Just Right Books’ • Read volumes of materials at a ‘good-fit’ or ‘just right’ reading level • Teach students to select appropriate material
Read Aloud & Think Aloud When reading aloud, you can stop from time to time and orally complete sentences like these: So far, I've learned... This made me think of... That didn't make sense. I think ___ will happen next. I reread that part because... I was confused by... I think the most important part was... That is interesting because... I wonder why... I just thought of...
Over to you… The best question!!!