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Describe the difference between universalizing religions and ethnic religions. • What is one branch of Christianity? • What branch of Islam is most popular in Iran?
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Where are religions distributed? • Universalizing religion (proselytic faith) • global, appeal to all people despite where they live • 62 % • Ethnic religion • one group of people living in one place • 24%
Universalizing Religion • Christianity • Islam • Buddhism
World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent.
World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two thirds of the world’s population adhere to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
Origin of Religions • Universalizing • precise places of origin • based on events in the life of a man • Ethnic • unknown • unclear origins • not tied to a single historical individuals
Diffusion of Ethnic Religions • Limited, if any, diffusion • Diffusion of universalizing religions comes at the expense of ethnic religions • diffuse if adherents migrate to new locations • economics reasons • forced to adopt a universalizing religion
Holy Places • Ethnic: • Holy place has a distinctive physical environment • Universalizing • Holy places not close • Not related to a particular physical environment • Pilgrimage • Hindus and Muslims
Christianity • 2 billion adherents • Largest, widest distribution • 3 branches • Roman Catholic (52%) • Protestant (21%) • Eastern Orthodox (10%)
Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe – a result of many historic interactions.
Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
Architecture • Cross- within the primary structure of worship, the church. • Steeple: extends to the heavens • Jesus Christ: lived on Earth, died on cross • Bible: • New and Old Testaments
Islam • 5 pillars: • No god worthy of worship except the one God, and Muhammad • 5 times a day Muslims pray facing the city of Makkah (Mecca) • Charity- purification and growth • Fasts during Ramadan- self purification • Pilgrimage to Makkah
Islam • Branches • Sunni- 83% • Shiite- 16%
Architecture • Mosque: not a sanctified place. • Minarets- tallest structure • Pilgrimage to Mecca: hajj • Mecca: holiest city in Islam • Medina • Imam- leader of the mosque
Buddhism • Third largest religion • China and Southeast Asia • 4 noble truths • Suffering • Reincarnation • Goal- escape suffering, Nirvana • Nirvana attained through 8 fold path
Buddhism • Religious functions performed by monks • Hard to classify • Buddhists and other religions • Architecture: pagodas: ornate
Ethnic Religions • Hinduism: • Largest • Third largest religion • Clustered (India) • Up to individual • Knowledge, renunciation, devotion, action • Harmony with nature • Allegiance to God • Hinduism
Ethnic Religions • Hinduism: • No holy book • Much worship done at home • Up to the individual
Other Ethnic Religions • Judaism • One all powerful God • 1st monotheistic religion • “chosen people” God selected them to live according to 10 commandments
Judaism Architecture • Star of David: David was a patriarch of Jewish religion • Passover, holy service • Rosh Hashanah: Jewish new year • Yom Kippur: holiday of atonement • fast
a) what do you know aboutJudaism and Islam • b) some questions you have about Judaism and Islam
Other Ethnic Religions • African • Animism- plants, stones, earthquakes, thunderstorms have spirits • Not much known • Hierarchy of divinities • Rapidly declining
How are the differences between universalizing and ethnic religions similar to the differences between folk and popular culture?
Origin of Christianity • Teachings of Jesus • Died on a cross in Jerusalem • Raised as a Jew and gathered disciples and preached the Kingdom of God • Betrayed, arrested and put to death • 3rd day after his death- tomb found empty • Raised from the dead by God
Origin of Islam • Trace story through Muhammad • Born in Mecca • Muhammad faced persecution • Forced to emigrate • Muhammad’s death leads to Sunni and Shiite split
Origin of Buddhism • Founder Siddhartha Gautama • Life changed after 4 trips • 4th monk taught him to withdrawal from the world • Lived in forest, emerged as Buddha • Trained monks, preached • Therevada oldest of the branches • Mahayana- less demanding
Origin of Hinduism • No specific founder • existed prior to recorded history
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Diffusion of Christianity • Palestine to relocation diffusion • By missionaries • Spread in Roman Empire through contagious diffusion • Interaction b/t believers and nonbelievers • Dominance in Roman Empire in 4th century • Hieratical diffusion • Acceptance of religion by key figures (Kings, emperors)
Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Diffusion of Islam • Muslim armies conquered • Palestine, Persian Empire, India, N. Africa, Western Europe • Relocation diffusion of missionaries
Diffusion of Islam Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
Diffusion of Buddhism • Not rapid • Asoka- sent missionaries • Merchants introduced Buddhism to China
Diffusion of Buddhism Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Judaism • Practiced in many countries • Not just country where it originated
Compare and Contrast 2 universalizing religions and 2 ethnic religions. • Use your notes and book.
Holy Sites in Buddhism Fig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.