Haim Ginott1972-1973: teacher, child psychologist I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom…my personal approach creates the climate…my daily mood makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess tremendous power..I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal..it is my response that decides whether a ..child [is] humanized or de-humanized.
Chief Dan George1899-1981, Chief of the Coast Salish Tribe If you talk to the animals, they will talk with you and you will know each other. If you do not talk to them, you will not know them. And, what you do not know you will fear. What one fears one destroys.
Finding our students’ stories Teaching excellence with diverse learners RCDE Faculty Retreat, February 3-4, 2011 Carol Rosenthal, DirectorAcademic Resource Center, Logan campus
Teaching excellence… • Ensures engaged, active learning experiences • Weave instruction with students’ “stories” • Hones teaching basics. • Simple, yet elegant solutions • Embraces fresh perspectives and methods.
diverse learners…. • Represent richness and heterogeniety. • Need their “stories” known and integrated into instruction. • Encourages trust, rapport, motivation, effort • Discourages fear, anxiety, isolation, pessimism, (learned) helplessness
Discovering richness • First week exercise: Learn student stories • “What are some of your family and cultural strengths?” • “What are some talents and skills evident in your family?” • “If I were to walk into your home, describe what I would find that helps me know (you) (what you are most proud of) (how you are unique).”
Weave stories into content instruction • Applications, metaphors, examples that fit students’ stories • Displaced worker • Chemistry, Microbiology, Economics, USU 1300, etc. • Time and self-management • Project cycles, customer flow, inventory cycles, family management, self-employment • Cultural approaches to time: compare/contrast • Other examples?
KWL: “stories” to prepare for learning • What do you already Knowabout_____? (and how did you come to know it?) • What do you Want to know about _____? • What did you Learnabout _____? • How will you Usewhat you learned?
What drives students’ stories about learning? • Dr. Marlene Schommer-Aikins, Wichita State University Beliefs about knowledge and learning affect: • active participation • persistence • reading comprehension • learning in complex or poorly structured environments
Beliefs about learning Omniscient Authority Professor responsible <-------> self-responsibility Certain Knowledge Static <------------------------------------ > Dynamic Simple Knowledge Fact bits <-------------Concepts & relationships Fixed Ability Innate <------------------> effort: learn how to learn Quick Learning One time <--------------------------> Time/effort Counterproductive Productive
Think-Pair-Share • What beliefs do you see most prevalent in your students? • In what ways do the beliefs show? • Guiding students through teaching methods
All-knowing authority • Certain, unchangeable knowledge • Simple knowledge • Quick learning • Fixed, innate ability • Collaborative, active learning • Problem-solving tasks • Structured controversy • Exposure to evolution of view points • Teach about Bloom’s • Think Alouds • In-class demonstration of complex tasks • Reflection writing • Share your experiences • Explicit and implicit study strategies instruction • Role models • Scaffolding learning • Tap into current abilities (use their “stories”)
Wait time …Think Time Essential teaching strategies
“Wait time” as an instructional tool • Dr. Mary Budd Rowe, 1925-1996 • 1972 study • Average wait time < 2 seconds • Increase to >3 seconds = improved • Logic • Language
Length & correctness of responses • Volunteered answers • Variety of questions • Higher level of thinking • “I don’t know” • No response • Amount (quality vs quantity)
“Wait time” is “think time” • uninterrupted silence by teacher and students so both can complete necessary information processing (Stahl, 1990) • the primary purpose and activity: complete on-task thinking
Information processing • Multiple cognitive tasks take time • We need uninterrupted time to • Process, reflect, think of response • Exercise: cats and dogs • How often are students typically provided sufficient time?
Types of “think time” silence • After teacher asks a question • Clear question with adequate cues • “What is the difference between a change on the demand curve and a shift of the entire curve”? • During a student’s response • Allow hesitation as student continues • After a student responds • Other students need time before they comment • Teacher pause time • Consider what your next statement or behavior will be
Effects of increased think time • More questions asked • More accurate and complex responses • Students initiated discussions more frequently. • Teachers’ questions = fewer and higher quality Think time works with all learners. Especially effective for certain cultures.
Questioning Techniques “The most powerful technology we have in education is the ability to ask good questions”. (including those questions we ask ourselves!) “Always the beautiful answer/who asks a more beautiful question.”eecummings
Beautiful Questions help students “dive deep” • Beautiful questions move students from “Beginner” to “Expert” thinking levels: • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
How do we learn: beginner to expert Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking & Learning EvaluateCan you evaluate, judge, make informed opinion? Analyze Can you break info. into parts and examine? Apply Can you apply what you know to “real life” situations? Deep learning Comprehend Can you put information into your own words, explain to others accurately Knowledge: (memorize) Can you recognize and recall information? Shallow learning
How do students typically respond to these types of questions – and why? • Do you have any questions? • Are there any questions? • What questions do you have?
Students don’t always know what they don’t know or understand. Or they need a specific focus. Do you have any questions? • Okay, so summarize why it’s important to use Think Time. (a great Think/Pair/Share) • Which of the following is the better example of an application level question and why? Are there any questions? What questions do you have? • In the past two lectures, I covered the following concepts. What parts are still confusing for you? • What would you like me to explain better ? What can I clarify? • I know this topic can be really confusing. What things are still unclear or don’t make sense to you? Give students permission to be confused.
Quick Thinks Brief, active learning exercises that require students to process information individually and collaboratively • Effective for beginning and ending class • Helps you avoid the “What questions do you have?” trap • Great during lectures (with Think-Pair-Share)
Select the best response. • Select the best answer for a M/C test question. Example Jean stole a loaf of broad in order to feed his starving family. What level of moral development would say that what he did was “OK”? A. Pre-Conventional B. Conventional C. Post-Conventional D. Les Miserables is a sweet musical, I don’t care if it makes me less of a man!
Correct the error • Instructor poses a test item that contains an error; students must find the error. Example next slide
The Equilibrium Constant K = [Products] [Reactants] Reactant Product K = 1 K < 1 K > 1
Complete a sentence starter • Instructor provides a sentence stem for students to complete (not just at knowledge level) Example: The three strikes mandatory sentencing laws might result in __________.
Compare or contrast • Instructor poses a comparison or contrast item to the class. Example: Compare Alpha vs Beta Decay relative to radioactive decay.
Reorder the steps • Given a set of randomly ordered steps , students are asked to correctly sequence them. Example Drawing stereo-images 1. Identify the molecule as R or S.2. Create a 3-D drawing of the molecule.3. Draw the mirror image of your 3-D molecule.4. Draw a "mirror".
Support a statement • Students are given a statement and, based on their reading, assignments, or lecture notes, are asked to provide support for the statement. Example Criminal behavior is a rational choice made by a motivated offender who perceives that the chances of gain outweigh any possible punishment or loss. (Criminological Choice Theory)
Teaching students how to learn • Note taking systems: how to “dive deep” • Summaries • Self-test questions • Cornell system/adaptations
Strategic reading • Think Aloud textbook tour • “architecture” of their text
Teaching students how to learn Visual organizers: match how information is organized to the learning task
Why teach visual organizers? How we organize information affects comprehension!
CATs • Classroom Assessment Techniques: Thomas Angelo & Patricia Cross 2nd ed., 1993, Jossey Bass • What are students capable of now? • How well are students learning? • How effectively am I teaching? • Informal, consistent monitoring of students’ learning • Feedback: Are they getting it? >>> teaching effectiveness
Minute Paper • Excellent for large classes • Quickly assesses student learning vs teacher’s perceptions • More than recall: students evaluate and self-assess • How well did I understand? Examples • What was most confusing about ____________? • What is the single most significant reason Italy became a center of the Renaissance? • List the 3 most important points from today’s lecture?
Class opinion poll Step 1: Please respond to each of the following statements:strongly agree (1)……..I’m neutral (3)………I strongly disagree(5): I need to change my teaching methods to improve students’ critical thinking. I can’t take time in class to add activities or discussion. I’m reluctant to create any more I have to respond to. If students don’t take responsibility, what I do doesn’t matter. Step 2: Discuss answers with your partner. Step 3: Show of hands poll (I-Clicker).Discuss with class.
Defining Features Matrix • Teaching goal: distinguish between theories, systems, processes, etc. • Develops : • Analytical skills • Conceptual and factual understanding • Implicit and explicit study strategy (how to organize information to see relationships)
“Misconceptions/Preconceptions” • Gauge where students are at • Develop students’ ability to distinguish between fact and opinion • Determine/develop openness to new ideas
Question:What makes the seasons change on Earth? • Sort explanations into categories (e.g., correct; “weather”, “distance”, “other”) Perfect for I Clicker! • Quick discussion to explain choices - Think-Pair-Share • Assignment: Students research which answer is correct and explain in short paper.. Class discusses evidence for each position. • Professor concludes explaining why other models are reasonable, though incorrect.
Muddiest Point What was the muddiest point in……lecture, video, lab, discussion, presentation? • Prof. responds in next class with discussion, activity, additional simulation • Advantages: • Excellent for large classes • Safe alternative to asking questions • Focuses future lectures and assignments • Teaches metacognitive behavior (self-testing) • Disadvantages • Students may have difficulty expressing what they don’t know.