English Teaching Methodology What you should know about English teaching?
Reference Books • Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Oxford University Press. • Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents. • Teaching by Principles, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents. • Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Jack C. Richards & Theordore S. Rodgers, Cambridge University Press. • An introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Diane Larsen-Freeman & Michael H. Long. • The Practice of English Language Teaching, Jeremy Harmer, Longman, Ltd. • Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. • Celce-Murcia, M. H&H • Second Language Teaching & Learning. David Nunan. (1995). H& H.
I. A Framework of TESOL • English language teaching and learning: language, education, psychology • Theoretical Underpinning: First language education, second language acquisition • Research methodology • Linguistics
II. English as a global language: cultural imperialism or intermixing? • the place of English: as a lingua franca • the number of English speakers: 600-700 million speak English; in Asia alone, 100 million children are learning English. • How English got there: a colonial history, economics (globalization), travel, information exchange (academic discourse; the Internet), popular culture (music, movies) • Varieties of English: inner circle, outer circle, and expanding circle; for specific or general purposes
III. Reasons of learning a 2nd/foreign language and what goals of it • Academic: to pursue degrees or certificates (* only a small portion in fact) • Non-academic: (a) to survive in Target Language community e.g. talking to neighbors, helping children at school, or carrying out daily functions effectively (b)English for specific purpose (ESP): to learning the lg as to apply in work (c) Culture: to know about the target community • Miscellaneous: to learn for pleasure, for integrating into a culture or to be forced to To understand students’ need and motivation of learning a language is crucial for successful learning and teaching.
IV. Research findings on SLA (a) Adults and adolescents can acquire a L2 (b) The learners creates a systematic IL with the same systematic errors as the child learning the L1 (c) There are predictable sequences in acquisition (d) Practice doesn’t make perfect (e) Knowing a linguistic rule doesn’t mean knowing how to use it (f) Isolated explicit error correction is usually ineffective (g) More adult learners fossilize (h) One cannot achieve nativelike command of a L2 in one hour a day (i) The learners’ task is enormous since language is complex A meaningful context is paramount.
Advantages children benefit from in learning a foreign language: • Children’s greater potential for developing accurate pronunciation, accent and fluency before puberty • Children’s favorable attitude towards a language and its culture, either their mother tongue or a second language. • Children’s less mental barriers of learning than adults • Children’s learning two languages simultaneously without suffering from inter-lingual interference • Listening along with speaking, a preliminary and preferable role in the natural order of language acquisition for children
But “learners of different ages have different characteristics” is more preferable than the critical hypothesis. Besides, accurate pronunciation is not the most important goal of language learning but a necessary or desirable goal. There are also other factors that determine the effectiveness of one’s language learning such as teacher’s language competence, the learning environment and so on.
IV. What is a good English learner/teacher? A Good learner of English is • Willing to experiment • Willing to listen • Willing to ask questions • Willing to think about how to learn • Independent/responsible
What is a good English teacher? According to Brown (2001), a good language teacher is characterized by i) technical knowledge—understanding linguistics; grasping basic principles of language learning and teaching; language proficiencies in speaking, reading, writing and listening; knowledge about language learning process through one’s own experience; understanding the relationship between culture and language and knowledge of latest development of language teaching and learning.
ii) Pedagogical skills---well-informed language teaching approaches; teaching techniques; ability in lesson plan design and other classroom behavior management skills. iii) Interpersonal skills. iv) Personal qualities.
VI. Important terms in TESOL • TESOL, TEFL, TESL • TESOL—an acronym for teaching English to speakers of other languages, used, particularly in the USA, to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is either a second language or a foreign language. • TEFL—an acronym for teaching English as a foreign language, used to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is a foreign language. • TESL—an acronym for teaching English as a second language, used either to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is a second language or to refer to any situation where English is taught to speakers of other languages.
ESL & EFL ESL—an abbreviation for English as a second language such as in Singapore EFL— an abbreviation for English as a foreign language such as Japan
Deductive learning of grammar— is an approach to language learning in which learners are taught rules and given specific information about a language. They then apply these rules when they use the language. For example, in the grammar translation method, specific grammar rules are given to learners and practice subsequently follows to familiarize students with the rule. The features of it are time-saving and suitable for adult learners who can afford abstract thinking. Besides it is widely used in EFL contexts where exposure to the target language is limited and the length of instruction time is short. (e.g. GTM, adult learners, FI/analytic learners, EFL contexts)
Inductive learning— is an approach to language learning in which learners are not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but are left to discover or induce rules from their experience of using the language. Language teaching methods which emphasize use of the language rather than presentation of information about the language include the direct method, the communicative approach and counseling learning. The features of it are time-consuming and applicable to young learners in natural settings such as ESL contexts.
Performance and competence Performance-- a person’s actual use of language; how a person uses his knowledge of a language in producing and understanding sentences. Competence-- a person’s knowledge of a language People may have the competence to produce a long sentence but when they actually try to use this knowledge, there are reasons why they restrict it. For example, they may run out of breath or their listeners forget what has been said if the sentence is too long. Due to performance factors such as fatigue, lack of attention, nervousness or excitement, their actual use of language may not reflect their competence. The errors they make are described as examples of performance.
the Acquisition-learning hypothesis by Stephen Krashen-(1941-) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Krashen • Acquisition vs. learning Acquisition--the processes by which people naturally develop proficiency in a language Learning-- the processes by which people formally develop language proficiency.
bottom-up processing vs. top-down processing Top-down processing—a way in which humans analyze and process language as part of the process of comprehension and learning by making use of previous knowledge (higher-level knowledge) in analyzing and processing information which is received such as one’s expectations, experience, schemata in reading the text. Bottom-up processing— a way making use principally of information which is already present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the words and sentences in the text itself.
Teacher-centered vs. learner-centered teaching Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching— a teaching style in which instruction is closely managed and controlled by the teacher, where students often respond in unison to teacher questions, and where whole-class instruction is preferred to other methods. Learner-centered teaching— methods of teaching which emphasizes the active role of students in learning, tries to give learners more control over what and how they learn and encourages learners to take more responsibility for their own learning. It is encouraged by many current teaching approaches.
Target language vs. native language Target language—the language which a person is learning Native language— a first language or mother tongue/motherese which is acquired first.
Form vs. function • Form— the physical characteristics of a thing-> in language use, a linguistic form is like the imperative • Function— a linguistic form can perform a variety of different functions: Come here for a drink-> invitation Watch out-> warning Turn left at the corner-> direction Pass the salt-> request
CALL-- computer-assisted language learning • CAI: computer-assisted instruction • 3 P- a traditional classroom teaching procedure derived from the Situational Approach of presentation, practice and production