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  1. Population Geography NGHS APHG

  2. Population Geography • Elements of Population Geography (focuses on spatial aspects of demography) • Demography (study of population) • Population Distribution • Population Density • Arithmetic Population Density • Physiologic Density • Rate of Natural Increase (the excess of births of deaths – omitting migration) • Growth Rate (Natural increase + Net Migration)

  3. Population Terms • Demography- the study of population characteristics • Overpopulation- when the available resources cannot support the number of people • Density- How many? The total number of people

  4. Demography • The study of human populations, particularly the size, distribution, and characteristics of members of population groups.

  5. Distribution and Density

  6. Population Growth • 0 AD 250 Million People • 1803 AD 1 Billion People • 1903 AD 1.6 Billion People • 1950 AD 3.0 Billion People • 1987 AD 5.0 Billion People • 1998 AD 6.0 Billion People

  7. The World and the Top 10 • World 6,602,224,175 TODAY • China 1,321,851,888 • India 1,129,866,154 • United States 301,139,947 • Indonesia 234,693,997 • Brazil 190,010,647 • Pakistan 164,741,924 • Bangladesh 150,448,339 • Russia 141,377,752 • Nigeria 138,898,084 • Japan 127,690,000

  8. Population Distribution – Descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups (depending on the scale) live. Dot Map of World Population – On this map, one dot represents 100,000 people

  9. Cartogram Countries are displayed by size of population rather than land area. Countries named have at least 50 million people.

  10. World Population Clusters • Two-thirds of the world’s population are concentrated in four regions: 1. East Asia (East China, Japan, S. Korea, Taiwan) - ¼ of world population here 2. South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) - bound by the Himalayas and a desert in Pakistan 3. Europe - population is concentrated in cities 4. North America - megalopolis

  11. Ecumene • The portion of the Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement • Increased over time • ¾ of world population lives on only 5% of the Earth’s surface

  12. Densely populated regions Low lands Fertile soil Temperate climate Sparsely Populated Regions dry lands wet lands high lands cold lands Population Distribution

  13. Density • Arithmetic Density • Physiological Density • Agricultural Density

  14. Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area.

  15. Arithmetic Density:The total number of people / area of land measured in km² or mi²

  16. Crude density, also called arithmetic density, is the total number of people divided by the total land area.

  17. Physiological Density: The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

  18. Physiological Density: The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

  19. Physiologic Population Density • Arithmetic Density= 192/ sq.mi. • Physiological Density= 6,682 /sq. mi. Egypt’s arable lands are along the Nile River Valley. Moving away from the river a few blocks, the land becomes sandy and wind-sculpted.

  20. Egypt’s population distribution is closely linked to the proximity of water. In the north, the population clusters along the Mediterranean and in the interior, along the banks of the Nile River. (2004)

  21. Agricultural Density: The number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

  22. Population Characteristics

  23. World Population Growth Birth rate (b) − death rate (d) = rate of natural increase (r)

  24. Population Characteristics • Crude Birth Rate (CBR) • Crude Death Rate (CDR) • Natural Increase Rate (NIR) • Doubling Time • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

  25. Population Characteristics • Crude Birth Rate : The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. • Crude Birth Rate = Births in a year 1000 people

  26. Crude Birth Rate : The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

  27. Population Characteristics • Crude Death Rate : The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. • Crude Death Rate = Deaths in a year 1000 people

  28. Crude Death Rate : The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

  29. Population Characteristics • Natural Increase: The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. • not including migration • usually measured in percentages (out of 100) • Rate of Natural Increase = Natural Increase Population x 100

  30. Natural Increase: The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

  31. Natural Increase • USA Population RNI • 0.6% • Nepal's Population RNI • 2.4% • What do these numbers imply?

  32. Population Characteristics • Doubling Time: The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

  33. Population Characteristics • Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. • Infant Mortality Rate: annual number of deaths of infants under age 1, compared to total live births • IMR = Infant(less than 1 year) deaths 1000 live births

  34. Infant Mortality Rate: - the number of deaths of children under the age of 1, per thousand of the general population.

  35. Population Characteristics • Life Expectancy : The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life Expectancy at Birth in 2003 Men Women US 74 80 Japan 78 85 Nepal 59 58 Kenya 46 46 France 76 83

  36. Life Expectancy : The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.

  37. A Population Bomb? • Thomas Malthus (1766-1834, England) • --Felt population growing exponentially and resources growing linearly • --Believed people needed to practice • ”moral restraint” to lower CBR or • disaster to increase CDR in order to • solve population problem

  38. Neo-Malthusians • Two recent issues that invigorate Malthus thought: • 1. many countries experiencing population growth due to transfer of medical technology • 2. new population “stripping” world of resources • Ehrlich (1960s) • warned of a population bomb in 1970s and 1980s because the world’s population was outpacing food production. • No bomb, no starving! Could there still be something learned from Ehhrlich’s thoughts?

  39. Critics of Malthus • Resources are not fixed: possibilism and technology • Lack o food have to do with distribution of wealth rather than insufficient food • Population growth can stimulate economic growth • More people=more consumers, more creativity

  40. Demographic Transition

  41. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL Demographic Transition - the change in population characteristics of a country to reflect medical technology or economic and social development.

  42. Demographic Transition - Stage 1 • High Birth Rate • Agricultural society • High Death Rate • Epidemics and plagues • Famine • War • Low Natural Increase Rate • Stationary population growth

  43. Demographic Transition - Stage 1 • Today, no country in the world is in Stage 1.

  44. Demographic Transition - Stage 2 • High Birth Rate • Declining Death Rate • Industrial Revolution: • agricultural improvements • medical advancements • High Natural Increase Rate • High expanding population growth