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Learning

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Learning

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  1. Learning Ch. 7

  2. Learning • Learning • relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience • Associative Learning • Learning that 2 events occur together

  3. Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • 1849-1936 • Russian physician/ neurophysiologist • Nobel Prize in 1904 • studied digestive secretions

  4. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) No salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) CS (tone) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) CR (salivation)

  5. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus • salivation when food is in the mouth

  6. Classical Conditioning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) • originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response • Conditioned Response (CR) • learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

  7. Behaviorism • John B. Watson • viewed psychology as objective science • generally agreed-upon consensus today • “baby Albert”

  8. Classical Conditioning • Acquisition • the initial stage in classical conditioning • Extinction • diminishing of a CR • Spontaneous Recovery • reappearance, of an extinguished CR • Generalization • tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses • Discrimination

  9. Operant Conditioning • Respondent Behavior • occurs as an automatic response to stimulus • behavior learned through classical conditioning • Operant Behavior • operates (acts) on environment • produces consequences

  10. Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) • elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect • developed behavioral technology

  11. Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer • any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

  12. Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement • reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement • reinforcing a response only part of the time • results in slower acquisition • greater resistance to extinction

  13. Schedules of Reinforcement • Fixed Ratio • Variable Ratio • Fixed Interval • Variable Interval Number of responses Amount of time

  14. Punishment • aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows

  15. Operant Conditioning • Latent Learning • learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • desire to perform a behavior for its own sake vs. the promise of rewards or threat of punishment

  16. Observational Learning • Observational Learning • learning by observing others • Modeling • process of observing and imitating a specific behavior • Mirror Neurons • may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

  17. Observational Learning • Alfred Bandura • Bobodoll