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Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks PowerPoint Presentation
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Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks

Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks

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Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks

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  1. Do You Remebmer?Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6

  2. What Are Sediments? • ______________________ • In order of decreasing size

  3. Sources of Sediments 1. From ________ & ________ 2. From ______ precipitation

  4. What Happens to Sediments 1. ____________ by: • Water. • Ice. • Wind. • Gravity. • Most sediment is buried and converted to sedimentary rock.

  5. What Happens to Sediments 2. _________ by • Rivers • Wind • Glaciers • Other water • When the transportation vector has run out of energy, the sediments are deposited (dropped).

  6. ____ Sorting- Transporting & Depositing Headwaters Mouth Grade = change in elevation/length

  7. Principle of _____ __________ Most sedimentary layers of rock are deposited in a horizontal position, with older rocks laid down first

  8. _________ Sediment becomes sedimentary rock through ________, which involves: • _________ • _________ • Recrystallization (of carbonate sediment) • Ex: sand Remember that SiO2 is released into groundwater from the chemical weathering of quartz and feldspars.

  9. 3 Classes of Sedimentary Rock _______ - fragments of rock debris produced by physical weathering. Ex. Sand & clay. _______- sediment precipitates from solution in water. Ex. Calcium carbonate & salt. _______ - sediment composed of the fossilized remains. Ex. Coal, oil, & natural gas.

  10. Gravel Clastic Rocks • If rounded clasts = ____________ • If angular clasts = __________

  11. Sand Clastic Rocks Different Sandstones based on dominate grains • quartz grains = ________ ____________ • feldspar grains = _______ • sand-sized rock fragment grains = __________

  12. Clay Clastic Rocks • Grains less than 1/256 mm (smooth) • _____ (if fissile – splits) • ________ (if massive)also called Claystone

  13. Chemical ________ From the evaporation of water (usually seawater). • Rock salt - composed of halite (NaCl). • Rock gypsum - composed of gypsum (CaSO4.2H20) • Travertine- composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and therefore, also technically a carbonate rock

  14. Chemical __________ • Formed through both chemical & biochemical processes. • Include the limestones (many types) • Two minerals are dominant: • Calcite (CaCO3) • Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2)

  15. Chemical ___________ Dominated by silica (SiO2). • From diatoms, radiolarians, or sponges. • Diatomite - looks like chalk, but doesn’t fizz in acid. Made of diatoms. Also referred to as Diatomaceous Earth. • Chert - Massive and hard, microcrystalline quartz. May be dark or light in color. Often replaces limestone. Does not fizz in acid.

  16. Biogenic (______) Sedimentary Rocks Coals • organic matter (plants). • Increasing depth of burial (temperature and pressure): • Peat (porous, brownish plant fragments) • Lignite (crumbly and black) • Bituminous(dull to shiny and black; sooty; layers may be visible) • Anthracite(extremely shiny and black; low density; not sooty

  17. ___________ from Sediments • Large enough to be recognized. • Ex.- haystack rock, sand dunes, delicate arch, balanced rock

  18. ___________ Environments • Aluvial Fan • Braided stream • Lakes • Rivers • Levees • Swamps • Deserts • Glacial

  19. ________ Environments Seas & oceans • Continental shelf • Continental slope and rise (deep sea fans) • Abyssal plain • Reefs

  20. ____________ Environments between the land and the sea.

  21. How can sedimentary rock help us learn about the past? • What can sedimentary rock teach us about the past?