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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior

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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior

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  1. Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst

  2. States of Consciousness Chapter 09

  3. Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms Module 20

  4. Introduction Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  5. Consciousness • Awareness of oneself and one’s environment

  6. Body Rhythms Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  7. Biological Rhythms • Periodic physiological fluctuations • Can affect physiological functioning • Fall into three main categories • Circadian Rhythms • Ultradian Rhythms • Infradian Rhythms

  8. Circadian Rhythms • Biological rhythms that occur approximately every 24 hours • Example: Sleep-wake cycle

  9. Sleep and Circadian Rhythms • Play “Sleep and Circadian Rhythms” (6:09) Module #13 from The Brain: Teaching Modules (2nd edition).

  10. Circadian Rhythms • Play “Circadian Rhythms” (3:58) Segment #9 from Psychology: The Human Experience.

  11. Ultradian Rhythms • Biological rhythms that occur more than once each day • Example: Stages of sleep throughout the night

  12. Infradian Rhythms • Biological rhythms that occur once a month or once a season • Example: Women’s menstrual cycle

  13. Biological Rhythms • Play “Can You Beat Jet Lag?” (6:44) Segment #15 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).

  14. Sleep and Sleep Deficit Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  15. Sleep Deprivation Effects • Decreases efficiency of immune system functioning • Safety and accident issues • Contributes to hypertension, impaired concentration, irritability, etc.

  16. Sleep Deprivation(National Transportation Safety Board, 1995)

  17. Sleep Deprivation Studies • Play “Catching Catnaps” (11:45) Segment #13 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).

  18. Why We Sleep Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  19. Hypothalamus • Sleep control center in the brain • Monitors changes in light or dark in the environment • Changes levels of hormones in the body

  20. Melatonin • A hormone that helps regulate daily biological rhythms • Linked to the sleep-wake cycle • Melatonin level increases during the night and decreases with exposure to morning light

  21. Reasons for Sleep • Two primary reasons: • Preservation: keep us protected from the dangers of the night • Restoration: recuperate from the wear and tear of the day

  22. Sleep Stages, REM, and Dreaming:The Stages of Sleep Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  23. Electroencephalograph (EEG) • A machine that amplifies and records waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface • Electrodes are placed on the person’s scalp to measure the waves • Used as a means to measure the stages of sleep

  24. EEG

  25. Stage 1 Sleep • Breathing is slowed. • Brain waves become irregular. • It is easy to wake the person, who will insist they are not asleep. • Person will report they have dreamlike sensations, such as falling.

  26. Stage 1

  27. Stages of Sleep

  28. Stage 1

  29. Stage 2 Sleep • Brain wave cycle slows. • EEG spindles (small brain wave bursts) develop. • First time through stage 2 last about 20 minutes.

  30. Stage 2

  31. Stages 3 and 4 Sleep • Increase in delta waves (large and slow waves per second) • First time through stage 4 is about 30 minutes and is where one gets rejuvenated

  32. Stage 3

  33. Stage 4

  34. Sleep • Play “Sleep: Brain Functions” (11:12) Module #14 from The Brain: Teaching Modules (2nd edition).

  35. Sleep Stages, REM, and Dreaming:REM Sleep Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  36. REM Sleep • Stages 1 - 4 considered N-REM (non-REM sleep) • Rapid eye movement (REM Sleep) as eyes move quickly back and forth • Most dreaming occurs in REM sleep

  37. REM Sleep

  38. Paradoxical Sleep • During REM sleep brain wave patterns are similar to when a person is awake • Pulse and breathing quickens. • REM sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep as one’s physiology is close to that of being awake but the brainstem blocks all muscle movement

  39. REM Sleep • Play “REM Sleep and Dreams” (8:23) Module #15 from The Brain: Teaching Modules (2nd edition).

  40. Typical Night’s Sleep

  41. Stage 4/REM Changes

  42. Sleep Changes through Life

  43. Sleep Stages, REM, and Dreaming:Why Do We Dream? Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  44. Information-Processing Theory • Dreams serve an important memory- related function by sorting and sifting through the day’s experiences • Research suggests REM sleep helps memory storage.

  45. Physiological Function Theory • Neural activity during REM sleep provides periodic stimulation of the brain.

  46. Activation-Synthesis Theory • Dreams are the mind’s attempt to make sense of random neural firings in the brain as one sleeps.

  47. Dream Research • Play “What’s in a Dream?” (13:00) Segment #14 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).

  48. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Problems:Insomnia Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms

  49. Insomnia • Recurring problems falling asleep or staying asleep • Sleeping pills tend to inhibit or suppress REM sleep; worsen the problem • Alcohol suppresses REM sleep; also worsens the problem • Studies show most people overestimate how long it took them to get to sleep

  50. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Problems:Sleep Apnea Module 20: Sleep, Dreams, and Body Rhythms