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Crime and Punishment

Crime and Punishment

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Crime and Punishment

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  1. Crime and Punishment Revision 2013

  2. Put these Tudor & Stuart Monarchs in order of when they reigned. Put a star next to the King who is the only Stuart King in the list

  3. Vagrancy. Read and underline KEY facts. Questions to test your knowledge to follow… During the 16th and early 17th centuries the authorities began to view with fear and suspicion the growing number of people out of work, begging to support themselves. Those able to work, but not doing so, became known as sturdy beggars or vagabonds. Some of these people wandered the country, searching for work or a way to support themselves. While some did undoubtedly turn to a life of crime, many of them would have been looking for work. Why were they begging/homeless? The population had risen massively in the 16th century, which meant many found it hard to find work.  Changes to the way farming worked (a move to more sheep farming in some areas which required less workers) meant that there were less jobs available. Finally Henry VIII dissolved (got rid of) the monasteries, who had previously helped support the poor and the needy. Now there was no help for them, as there was no dole at the time. How were they treated? Considering their position, vagabonds were treated awfully. Their punishments varied throughout the 16th century. At various times, these punishments included: Being whipped out of town (in an attempt to send the vagrant back to their home parish). Being branded with the letter V on the forehead, to show everyone what their crime was/had been. A two year term of slavery. Repeat offenders could be executed, or sold into slavery. These last punishments were brought in then removed at several times. They were introduced at times when it appeared the Vagrant population was out of control, perhaps when there was a harsh winter and there was less farm work. They were removed as people thought them to harsh. What about those really unable to work? There was a division in the way that people viewed people who were not working. Those who were too young, too old or too ill/infirm to work became known as the deserving poor. These were people that it was felt deserved to be helped, as they were unable to support themselves. This help would be provided by their home parish, where they would be supported. In 1572, local Justices of the Peace were given the power to collect a local tax called the poor rate in their parish. Its aim was to support those unable to work outlined above. What happened in the end? The system was brought together in 1601 when the Great Poor Law Act was brought in. This ordered ALL councils to collect a poor rate (previously optional) and provide workhouses, where those unable to work would be housed, fed but also worked hard and in many cases, treated extremely poorly. This system stayed in place until 1834.

  4. Questions

  5. Example Questions • What was Vagrancy in the 16th Century? • Describe how unemployment led to crime in the 16th century • Describe how poverty led to crime in the 16th century? • Describe the crime of vagrancy in the 16th century

  6. Write down Five facts about Highway Robbery •

  7. Smuggling Smuggling was an increasing problem in the ___ & ___ centuries. Many people were involved in smuggling many goods into the country, such as; ________, ________, ________, ________, _____________ and _________________. It was crime as people were ______________ bringing good into the country without the permission of the _________________________ but more importantly they were not paying the ___________ ______ on them. There were many causes for the increase in __________________. The Government had increased __________ taxes to get more money for the public, and many people were unhappy with this and thought it was ___________. Many people were ___________ stricken so ended up getting involved in smuggling to make a living, while others were just ___________. The punishment for Smuggling was ____________.

  8. The Crime of Hersey What: Why: When: Example:

  9. Industrial Revolution changes • What was the Industrial Revolution? • Why did people move to the cities? • What were these cities like? • What crime arose during this time?

  10. Complete the following paragraph • The ______ rioters were a group of ______ labourers mainly in the south of England. They were angry because food prices were getting increasingly higher and the newly invented threshing _______ were causing bosses to __________ the workers _______ or were putting the labourers completely out of _____. In response many labourers led by the fictional _________ ________ attacked ______, setting ______ around the villages. They were the most harshly punishment of all ________ groups as ___ were executed, ______ were transported and other punishment included _________, ________ and ______ . • Word Box Houses fines decrease Farm Swing wages Whipping prison 19 Work machines 648 Protest fire Captain Swing

  11. Choose the correct sentence to complete each of the following statements • The Luddites were a group of textile mill workers who were angry because • The farming machines they worked on took over their jobs so they burned down houses and machines • New textile machinery was invented which replaced many of their jobs or decreased their wages, so they destroyed many machines and killed some mill owners • They couldn’t go on toll roads without having to pay a lot of money which was making them ever poorer so they destroyed them on several occasions

  12. Put the events of the Rebecca Riots into the correct order

  13. Looking at the following statements decide which terrorist groups/movements they represent • Al Qaeda – (AQ) • Irish Republican Army (IRA) • Middle Eastern Troubles (ME) • Definition of terrorism (DT)

  14. Crime focus: Hooliganism • "Hooliganism" is the term used broadly to describe disorderly, aggressive and often violent behaviour perpetrated by spectators at sporting events. In the UK, hooliganism is almost exclusively confined to football • Always existed in the sports history but become a more serious problem since the 1960’s • In the 1980’s was linked to English football supports after numerous incidents particularly aboard – where there were violent assaults including murders • Not as serious a problem now – some violence between rival clubs/gangs – arranged through mobiles or social networking sites. The worst cases are usually linked to international games. • Other countries more so than England now have problems with Football Hooliganism • An example: Heysel disaster of 1985, in which a "charge" by Liverpool fans at rival Juventus supporters caused a wall to collapse, resulting in 39 deaths. English teams were banned from European club competitions until 1990, and during this time, substantial efforts were made by the police to bring the problem under control. • Many laws have been passed in an attempt to control the growth of Hooliganism • In April 2000, Christopher Loftus and Kevin Speight, two Leeds United supporters, were stabbed to death in Istanbul ahead of a UEFA Cup semi-final, in what the coroner's inquest described as "an organised ambush" by Turkish fans

  15. Hooliganism Questions • What is Hooliganism? • What causes it? • Why is it a crime? • Give some examples?

  16. Name each of the Punishments and give reasons why it was used • A) • B) • C) • D) • E) • F)

  17. Mary Queen of Scots • Mary, Queen of Scots, was born in 1542 and was executed on 1587 • Mary was Elizabeth I's cousin. • Mary had been brought up as a strict Catholic which put her at odds with the Protestant Elizabeth. • Became queen when she was only one • Raised at the French court, and was married at 15. Her husband the French prince died a year later. She returned to Scotland, re-married – very turbulent relationship, they had a son, later became James I of England. Her husband was found strangled in there ruins of their house, which was set on fire • She married again to the Earl of Bothwell – who many believed killed her husband • She was arrested by Scottish Nobles but escaped to England hoping her cousin would help her • She didn’t she imprisoned her in many different house throughout England for the next 19 years • Elizabeth wanted to maintain religious stability • Mary was an obvious replacement for Catholics who did not want Elizabeth to be queen • Elizabeth I was reluctant to sign Mary's death warrant but she had no option when it was clear Mary had committed treasons against her by taking part in the Babington Plot • On 8 February 1587, Mary, Queen of Scots was executed at Fotheringhay Castle. • She wore a blood red bodice, symbolising Catholic martyrdom. • James VI of Scotland had Fotheringhay destroyed after he became King of England. He united the two nations and had Mary and Elizabeth buried side by side in Westminster Abbey.

  18. John Penry • 1563 – 1593 • Welsh • Brought up a Roman Catholic • Son of a wealthy farmer • Attended Cambridge university and then Oxford, came into contact with protestant ideas and influences • Known in Wales for his skills as a preacher , being known as ’TelynCymru’ (the Welsh Harp) • Wanted the church to be improved, even petitioned the queen (Elizabeth I) • Arrest by the archbishop • Got involved in printing information about the church – this was viewed by many as treason • He had to continue to move around to avoid arrest • Continued to denounce to church and openly spoke about it • 1592/93 – arrested, and despite swearing allegiance to the queen and the country was sentenced to death and executed on 29 March 1593 • Influence at the time quite limited • Considered by historians as the first welsh protestant preacher

  19. Choose between the following questions to answer – use the info to help you. • Describe the execution of Mary Queen of Scot • Describe the execution of John Penry • Describe the Marian Persecutions

  20. What was the Bloody Code? • Why was there a Bloody Code in England and Wales? • How many crimes were punishable by death at the height of the code? • Give a few examples • Was it called the Bloody Code the time?

  21. Bridewells Prisons in the 16th and 17th centuries House of correction Debtors’ Prisons

  22. Punishment focus: Transportation • What was Transportation? • When was it introduced? • Why was it introduced? • Where were people transported and for what crimes? • What were Hulks? • What was it like on arrival? What was like life for the convicts? • What were the consequences of Transportation? • Why did it end?

  23. End of the Bloody Code • Decide if these statements are true of false • The Bloody Code was the unofficial name for the punishments system in England and Wales used before the 1800’s • It was when there were not many crimes punishable by death • In 1823 the criminal code was reform with the changing of laws, in particular the Gaol Act • It was thought by many including judges that the laws were too harsh so they believed reform of the Bloody Code was needed • At the time there were over 500 crimes punishable by death • Some of the crimes punishable by death now seem very extreme and unfair • In 1968 the law was changed which banned public executions, but some crimes were still punishable by death but not in the public eye • Public executions were clearly not working, and in-fact were causing more crimes – people were getting drunk and causing trouble in big crowds. • By the 1830s’ the number of crimes punishable by death were drastically reduce to just murder and treason. • Humiliation was still used – even now people get put in pillory's in towns. • Fines became more common • Whipping wasn’t used a punishment on its own but was it prisons.