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Group 12 PowerPoint Presentation

Group 12

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Group 12

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  1. Group 12 Vino Ambrose Kalli Bennett Kate Larson Arien Telles Lindsay Starn

  2. Marriage in a Culture of Divorce • Marriage Culture to Divorce Culture • In the 1970’s, divorce overtook death as the primary means of marital dissolution

  3. Marriage Culture • A cluster of beliefs, symbols and practices, framed by material conditions that reinforce marriage and deter divorce • Constituted by three beliefs that reflect a stance toward marriage and divorce • Marrying is a given • Marriage is forever • Divorce is a last resort

  4. Divorce Culture • A set of symbols, beliefs and practices that anticipate and reinforce divorce and redefine marriage • Encompasses three key beliefs • Marrying is an option • Marriage is contingent • Divorce is a gateway • Not just about more numbers representing divorce behaviors, but about emergence of alternative meanings

  5. Gender Equality • Expressed through two main and competing strains of thought • “Rights Equality” – equality that minimizes differences between the sexes and emphasizes individual rights • “Relational Equality” – equality understood as equity; would have us revalue ideals and practices associated

  6. The Challenge of Gender Equality • Challenges status quo in marital meanings, changing power dynamics in marriage • Rising divorce rates have often been blamed on women • Women found to be more approving of divorce than men • Women are the primary initiators of divorce • Individualism does not mean the same thing to women and men • Men: putting self first remains a way to sustain male dominance in marriage • Women: putting self first is a way to counter male dominance in marriage

  7. The ’50s Stones: Constructing Traditionalism • Referred to parents and “era” when asked what encouraged them into marriage • Marital monitoring was wives’ work and included “kin work” and “emotional work” • Believed in the reciprocity beyond the give and take in any one moment of a marriage • Many of the ’50s spouses supported women’s equality in the work place by the 1970’s , but felt that in marriage there has to be a boss • Male dominance and marriage culture are hard-wired for this generation. Relationships depended on wife monitoring the marriage and reconstructing herself for the husband

  8. The ’70s Turners: Divorce Culture • Characteristics of Divorce Culture • Individualism • Independence • Communication • Division of Labor • Gender Ideology • Decrease in traditional roles • Increase in Equality

  9. Divorce anxiety and culture • Divorce as a gateway • New lease on life • Means to marital endurance • Hypothetical Divorce • “Marital Work Ethic” • Work at marriage to survive

  10. The Death of ‘Till Death Do Us Part’: The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century Main Argument: Death to Divorce…

  11. 1400-1800 • Marriage ended because of death • 1867-1985 • Divorce rate jumped from 10% to over %55

  12. Divorce rates vary by race • Black .63 • Hispanic .52 • White .48

  13. Three factors contributed to the shift from death to divorce • Increase in life span • Shift in biopsychosocial roles of women • Change in social values and legal policies

  14. The evolution of human pair-bonding • Capacity to stay married/divorce • Inclination to divorce • Religiousness • Beliefs about marriage • Happiness • Family history • Social context • Projected damage • Life-course Explanation • Evolutionary Heritage

  15. Impact of Death to Divorce Transition • New pair-bonding patterns and alternative perspectives • Traumatic emotional experience • Feminist values • Individual rights • Heightened expectations for intimate relationships

  16. Collective Deconstruction of Marriage • Rate of divorce increased • Rate of marriage decreased • Rates of cohabitation without marriage and non-marital births increased

  17. Implications • Marital theory needs to become pair-bonding theory • The existence and viability of a multiplicity of pair-bonding arrangements needs to be acknowledged and addressed • Entering into any particular pair-bond structure entails a distinct and legitimate decision-making process • Young adults, contemplating pair-bonding, need to be able to consider a variety of pair-bond options that fit their cultural beliefs, personal preferences, and relational goals • Marriage should continue to be defined as the lifelong, monogamous pair-bond • Marriage, s a life-long, monogamous committed relationship, should be available to all mentally competent adults who desire to enter into such a legal and formal relationship • Co-parenting w/o marriage needs to be recognized as a legitimate and life-long, nonmonogamous pair-bond • Cohabitation w/o children or marriage needs to be viewed not only as a legitimate end-state in itself, but also as a legitimate form of pre-marriage • Divorce and relational dissolution need to be viewed and treated as normal social events in the life course of modern families • The decision to divorce needs to be viewed with greater complexity, thoughtfulness, and neutrality

  18. Discussion Questions • Why have rising divorce rates consistently been blamed on women? Is this blame fair? • Is gender equality really destabilizing in marriage? • Hackstaff states that, “historically, becoming a wife and becoming a husband have not meant the same thing”. What then does it mean to become a wife and to become a husband? • Can divorce, as Pinsof says, be a good thing, with positive outcomes, or is it always to be viewed negatively? • Do you agree with Pittman, that most children of divorce survive, but do not recover?