West Tennessee Middle Tennessee East Tennessee Tennessee Facts Slavery Famous Tennesseans Civil War Native Americans Explorers & Early Settlers
East Tennessee West Tennessee Middle Tennessee
East Tennessee • Bordered by the Appalachian Mountains • Includes Great Smokey Mountains • Clingman’s Dome is highest elevation in Tennessee
East Tennessee Cities Tri-Cities consisting of Bristol, Johnson City, and Kingsport Chattanooga Knoxville Click to return to main menu
MiddleTennessee West Tennessee East Tennessee
Middle Tennessee • Nashville is capital of Tennessee • Center of Tennessee government
Middle Tennessee • Largest Grand Division • Geographic center of state in Murfreesboro • Contains Rutherford County and Smyrna
Middle Tennessee • Raising livestock and farming make it agricultural center Click to return to main menu • Shelbyville (Bedford County) known for Tennessee Walking Horse.
West Tennessee Middle Tennessee East Tennessee
West Tennessee • Major cities • Memphis and Jackson
West Tennessee • Main agricultural region of the state • Major crop is cotton • Soybeans also grown
West Tennessee • Western boundary of Tennessee is Mississippi River Click to return to main menu
Tennessee Flag • Each star represents one of the three Grand Divisions • Circle around stars shows the three Divisions are united
Tennessee Seal • 1796 shows year Tennessee became state • Roman numeral XVI shows that Tennessee was 16th state • State motto “Agriculture and Commerce” shows that both equally important
State Bird—Mocking Bird State Flower--Iris
State Wild Animal--Raccoon State Fish—Largemouth Bass
State Tree— Tulip Poplar State Insect-- Ladybug
Important Rivers Clinch River Cumberland River Tennessee River flows from TN into Alabama and back into TN. Click to return to main menu Duck River
Presidents from Tennessee • Andrew Jackson • James K. Polk • Andrew Johnson
Andrew Jackson1767-1845 • Got the nickname “Old Hickory” in War of 1812 • 7th president elected in 1828 & 1832 • Known as a man of the people • Home in Nashville named the Hermitage
James K. Polk1795-1849 • 11th president elected in 1845 • Led U. S. in war with Mexico over Texas • Gained Texas, New Mexico, California, and Oregon for U.S.
Andrew Johnson1808-1875 • Became 17th president in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated • Had served as Lincoln’s vice president • President during Reconstruction after Civil War
Davy Crockett1786-1836 • Helped settle West Tennessee • Hunter, soldier, author, and member of U.S. Congress • Volunteered to help Texas fight against Mexico for independence • Killed at the Battleof the Alamo
Sam Houston1793-1863 • Governor of Tennessee in 1827 • Went to Texas in 1832 • General in Texas revolution against Mexico • Became first governor of Texas • Houston, Texas named after him
Sam Davis1842-1863 • Grew up in Smyrna, Tennessee • Confederate scout in Civil War • Captured by Union Army and refused to reveal information about Confederate positions • Hanged by Union army as a spy
Casey Jones1864-1900 • Railroad engineer • Saw a parked train ahead of his speeding locomotive • He applied the brakes but although Jones was killed; the passengers were saved. • Popular song was written about him
Alex Haley1921-1992 • Tennessee author of Roots, a story based on his family history • Haley traced his roots back to African Kunta Kinte who was kidnapped into slavery • Wrote about his ancestors in slavery and after the Civil War Click to return to main menu
Slavery in Tennessee • African settlers were important part of those moving to Middle and West Tennessee • By 1791 about one-tenth of state’s population was of African ancestry. • Most were slaves
Slavery in Tennessee • Slaves are people who are held against their will and forced to work for no pay • Slave jobs included: • Planting & harvesting crops • Raising farm animals • Slaves worked hard for owners • They were often treated badly • Some ran away to the North where slavery was illegal
Free Blacks in Tennessee • By 1860 more than 7,300 free Africans lived in Tennessee • Had same political freedoms as white men at the time • Owned farms and businesses
Abolition in Tennessee • Some people wanted to abolish (end) slavery. • Elihu Embree started first abolitionist newspaper in U.S. in Jonesborough, Tennessee • Newspaper was caller The Emancipator. • As more land in Tennessee was used for farming, slavery increased. Click to return to main menu
Hernando de Soto • First Europeans to arrive in Tennessee • Led 600 Spanish soldiers • Found many natural resources, but not the gold they hoped to find
Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet • Marquetts—Catholic priest • Joliet—fur trader • French explorers • Led group of explorers from Canada to West Tennessee in 1673
James Needham &Gabriel Arthur • In 1673 and 1674, they traveled from North Carolina into Tennessee to establish trade with the Cherokee Indians.
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle • French explorer led expedition from Canada to Gulf of Mexico • Built fort near where Memphis is today
Dr. Thomas Walker1715-1794 • Explorer, surveyor, statesman & physician • First to record information about the existence of Cumberland Gap
James Robertson • Led first group of pioneers to East Tennessee in 1771 • Settled the community known as the Watauga Association • Helped write the Watagua Compact, the state’s first constitution • In 1779 traveled to Middle Tennessee • Helped settle Ft. Nashborough
William Blount • Moved to what became Tennessee in 1790 • Appointed governor of the Territory South of the River Ohio (which included Tennessee) and also as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern Department • Presided over constitutional convention to create state of Tennessee
John Sevier • Led a group of pioneers from what would become Tennessee who went (Overmountain Men) to fight the British in Battle of King’s Mountain • British defeated and Sevier became hero • Was elected first governor of Tennessee Click to return to main menu
Native Americans in Tennessee • Chickasaw Indians lived in West Tennessee • Shawnee Indians lived in Middle Tennessee. • Creek Indians had several large villages in southeastern Tennessee. • Cherokee Indians lived in East Tennessee in the Appalachian Mountains.
Similarities Skilled hunters, farmers, and fishers Built homes using natural resources from forest around them Similar dress Differences Each tribe had own language, culture, and traditions Often fought wars for control of land and its resources Comparison of Native American Tribes in Tennessee
Nancy Ward, Cherokee Peacemaker • Cherokee leader named Nanye’hi and later called Nancy Ward • As young woman saw her Cherokee husband Kingfisher killed in battle against Creeks. • She picked up his gun and took his place in battle. • Cherokees won battle and made her a Beloved Woman to show thanks. • She then had right to be heard in tribal council.
Nancy Ward • Married an English trader and became known as Nancy Ward • Worked for peace between settlers and Cherokee • Warned Watauga settlers in 1776 that Cherokees planned attack which saved lives of most of settlers • Helped Cherokee Nation reach agreement with U.S. government in 1785. • Died in 1824
Sequoyah, Creator of Cherokee Writing System • Created a written language for Cherokee • Born in Tennessee of Cherokee mother and Virginia fur trader • Did not read or write English but fascinated that English settlers could read and write
Sequoyah • Spent 12 years on his writing system called a syllabary • Had 85 characters or symbols • Each character stood for a sound in the Cherokee language • Cherokees could write down their laws, publish books, and print newspapers.
Trail of Tears • During 1800s settlers wanted to gain control of more Native American land. • Passed Indian Removal Act of 1830 that said all Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River had to leave their lands and move west.
Trail of Tears • Cherokee were forced from their homes by soldiers • Had to march 1,200 miles to Indian Territory where Oklahoma is today.
Trail of Tears • Journey called Trail of Tears passed through Tennessee including area around Murfreesboro and Smyrna • About 4,000 Cherokees died along the way • Those who lived suffered from hunger, cold, and sadness at being driven from homes. Click to return to main menu
Tennessee in the Civil War • Lincoln elected president in 1861 • Many thought he would try to end slavery. • Southern farms depended on slave labor. • Southern states wanted to decide about slavery for themselves.