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Sudan: In Search of a Nation

Sudan: In Search of a Nation

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Sudan: In Search of a Nation

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  1. Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann Dunbar The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill For Bridges and Barriers Workshop State Department of Public Instruction Raleigh, NC--July 12, 2006 (the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some revisions due to accessibility)

  2. Overview • Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley • Sudan—Physical and Human Resources • Socio-Economic Indicators • Nineteenth and 20th Centuries • Themes of the Independence Era 1956-Present • Civil Conflicts and the Search for Peace

  3. The Ancient Nile Valley • The Legacy of Human Diversity • A New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and Libyans Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, 15-17

  4. • Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1991, 14-15.

  5. Nubian Queens • Queen Kemsit—Nubian Queen of Mentuhotep II, 2061-1010 B. C. Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 16

  6. Kush and the 25th Dynasty • The Sphinx of Taharqa 690-664 B. C. from the Temple I at Kawa 10th image down Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press 1001, Cover

  7. Queen Malakaye • A Kushitic queen of the early 6th century. • Women of the ruling class held high status in the Kush Kingdom. • During the later phase of the empire in Meroe, some queens were joint rulers. • Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 31.

  8. Sudan Political Map •

  9. Physical and Human Resources • About ¼ size of United States • Largest country territorially • Savannah Grasslands to South—Seasonal Rains April-November • Desert to the north • Confluence of Blue and White Nile • Scroll down to map and click to enlarge. Option to download printable map National Geographic 203, 2 (February 2003). Map., 39

  10. Major Socio-economic Indicators • Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.) growing at 2.55%/year • Life Expectancy: 57.69 yrs for men; 60.21 years for women • Infant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live births • Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman http://www.cialgov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/su.html

  11. Cultural Features of Sudan • Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples. • Arabs. 40% of population (1990). Divided between jaali (riverine, sedentary people) and juhayna (nomads). • Nubians. Largely dispersed by the construction of Aswan dam. • Beja. Cushitic speaking people now largely Arabized • Fur. Agricultural people of the Jabal Marrah

  12. Peoples of Northern Sudan • Map and person • • Tremendous variety of images – warning: one on the home page is inappropriate for students Beja of the Sudan Coastal Region Nuba Mountain People

  13. Cultural Features of Sudan • Muslim Peoples (con’t). • Zaghawa. Herding and gathering populations north of the Fur • Masalit, Daju, and Berti. Cultivators speaking Nilo-Saharan languages • West Africans. Largely Bornuan or Fulani in origin, constituted in 1990 6.5% of Sudanese population.

  14. Cultural Features of Sudan • Non-Muslim Peoples • Nilotes. 3/5 of population of southern Sudan (1990). • Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups. • Nuer • Shilluk • Bari, Kuku, Kadwa, Mandari. South and East of other Nilotes, although Bari and Mandari closely related to them.

  15. Two Principal Groups of Southern Sudan • • Nuer Dinka and Cattle

  16. Cultural Features of Sudan • Non-Muslim Peoples (cont). • Murle, Didinga and others. • Azande. Western al-Istiwal and Bahr al Ghaza and constituting 8% of population of southern Sudan • Bviri and Ndogo. Southwestern Sudan speaking languages close to Azande. • Nuba. Cultivators of Nuba Mountains of southern Kurdofan

  17. Economy • Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.) • GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.) • Composition of GDP • Agriculture 38.7% (80% of workforce) • Industry 20.3 % (7% of workforce) • Services 41% (13% of workforce) • Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002)

  18. Economy • Exports • Oil and petroleum products • Cotton • Sesame • Livestock • Groundnuts • Gum Arabic and Sugar • Export Partners: China (66.9%), Japan (10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004)

  19. Economy • Imports • Foodstuffs • Manufactured goods • Refinery and Transport equipment • Import Partners: China (13%); Saudi Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt (5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%); Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004)

  20. Petroleum • Insert map of oil fields and pipeline to the Red Sea •

  21. Petroleum • Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan in 1978. • First exported in 1999 • Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bbl • Oil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005) • Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004) • Natural Gas Proved Reserves: 84.95 billion cu m (2005) but none is being produced.

  22. Petroleum • In 2005, Sudan had become the 7th largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and Equatorial Guinea • In June 2006, Nigeria, the only African country in OPEC and holder of group’s presidency invited Angola and Sudan to join OPEC. • OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global oil production.

  23. Political History 19th & 20th Centuries • Era of the Turkiyya under Muhammad Ali • Modernization of the Egyptian state • Institutionalization of slave raiding that penetrated areas of Middle and Upper Nile • At first a state monopoly, then licenses to commercial merchants who wreaked havoc on areas to the south • Egyptian Slavers ca 1820 (link is slavers of the 19th century)

  24. History of Sudan • 1884-1898—The Mahdiya Islamist State • The Mahdi succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi Ibn Muhammad. • With help of Baggara, attempted expansion into Ethiopia

  25. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan • Lord Herbert Kitchener conquers Khartoum and defeats the Mahdist State in 1898 • Image of Lord Herbert Courtesy of Robert O. Collins

  26. Britain’s Southern Policy • Close off the South to northern merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim clerics • Rely on Christian missions for education and civil services • Focus on development of cotton as cash crop through the al-Gezira scheme

  27. Key Political Figures of Northern Sudan 1956-2005 • General Ibrahim Abboud • Hassan al Turabi • Jaffar Nimeiri • Sadiq al-Mahdi • Muhammad al-Mirghani • Ali Osman Taha • Omar al-Bashir • < see Sudan Readings and Bibliography for images of each of these>

  28. The South After Independence • Agreements made at time of independence led many southerners to fear northern domination both politically and culturally • Arabic official language • Bureaucratic positions open to northerners • Consolidation of military under northern command—led to first signs of rebellion • Image of Sudan’s flag

  29. Era of First Civil War • 1955-1972 of northern hegemony following the opening up of the south • 1963. Emergence of Anya Nya as force to be contended with because of military support from outside. • Despite considerable military assistance to Government of Sudan, no victory over south seemed possible • Continued instability in north because of failure to resolve this crisis • Nimeiri’s government reached peace accord with Anya Nya in 1972

  30. Second War in the South • 1983-1994 • Declaration of SPLM/A as movement to achieve autonomy for southern Sudan • 1994 Cukudum Conference. First attempts to establish formal judicial system to work with local elders • Established National Congress, National Leadership Council, and National Executive Council

  31. Second War in the South • SPLM/A persisted as weak governance structure in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalries—especially between the Dinka who dominate SPLM/A • John Garang remained dominant in both military and civil affairs • 1997 attempt to draft constitution for Southern Sudan unable to bridge gap between accountability and Garang’s power.

  32. Issues in Southern Politics • Lack of a sound ideology of governance within the SPLM/A reinforced militaristic nature of Garang’s rule • Ethiopian support ended in 1991 • Split between Nuer under Riek Machar of Sudan Peoples Defence Forces (SPDF) and SPLM/A • January 2002—reintegration of SPDF with SPLM/A • Image of John Garang • Image of Riek Machar John Garang Riek Machar

  33. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)—January 9, 2005 • Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsored peace negotiations. • Formal peace process began in 2002 with additional support of the United States, the United Kingdom and Norway.

  34. Comprehensive Peace Agreement—January 9, 2005 • Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a referendum in the South will decide whether or not to secede. • During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) will be autonomous. • President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU. • Integrated military of 39,000 • Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and south • Jobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration and in the transitional areas. • Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan.

  35. SPLM Challenges • Untimely Death of John Garang in July 2005. • Succeeded by Salva Kiir, former military commander without diplomatic skills and contacts of Garang • SPLM must develop a program to implement peace, and to expand political alliances • Image of John Garang

  36. The Tragedy of Darfur • Ancient History of close and amicable relations between Arab nomads and African cultivators • Famous Sultanate of Fur a preeminent power in central Sudan in 19th Century • Hakura system of feudal land grants given to followers who then had access to collection of dues from population. • Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages

  37. Darfur • Image of Jebel …. • The region incorporated into the Mahdist state and then into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan where it remained a backwater Photo of Jebel Marra, a volcanic massif in Darfur

  38. Darfur • Today region has population of ca 6 million • Population before the war was relatively poor • Historically, both nomads and cultivators would migrate The Jebel Marra—at 8,000 ft, an important area of rich land of fields, orchards and pastures

  39. Darfur • Map of Darfur • Darfurians are predominantly Muslim • Many, like Ali al Haj Mohamed—a Bornuan, ran as an Islamist for governship of Darfur but was defeated. • In 1994, when he was Minister of Federal Affairs, he divided up Darfur into the three states of today in hope that Islamists candidates might succeed.

  40. Darfur • Ecological pressures first in 1960s, then in 1980s—population pressures and drought meant that cultivators closed off some of the nomads migration routes in order to protect their fields. • Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of the country for work—many to Libya

  41. Darfur • By late 1980s, a group that came to be called the Arab Gathering formed close ties with Muammar Gaddafi of Libya and began a critique of the central government for its neglect. • Their ideology exhibited a racist preference for “pure Arabs”, the Juhayna, in opposition to the riverine groups that controlled the government

  42. Darfur-1990s • Following coup of Gen Omar Bashir in 1989, the government sought to strengthen ties to the Arab World and in Darfur—to expand the position of Arabs by a proliferation of administrative titles that were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs. • Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were disarmed and youth sent to fight against the south.

  43. Darfur Arabs in 1990s • Musa Hilal emerges as important leader of the Abbala Arabs in the north from his base in Misteriha • By 2000, both helicopters and weapons were amassed there. • Image of Musa Hilal

  44. Darfur—Origins of Sudan Liberation Army • 1996. Setting up of a secret organization in Khartoum by men who were to be important to SLA: • Abdel Wahid Mohamed al Nur, the first chairman of SLA • Ahmad Abdel Shafi, SLA’s first coordinator • Abdu Abdalla Ismail, SLA’s first representative to the Ceasefire Commission set up under the African Union

  45. Origins of SLA • Began to raise money and arms—explicitly in response to the threats made in Arab Gathering statements about killing all Blacks; • 1997. Had their first meeting with self-defense groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the mobilization of the area around Jebel Marra possible image of troops

  46. Early Days of SLA • 1997-2002: Worked to expand ties with Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs. • August 2002. Leadership conference to elect officers military commanders • January-March 2003. First meetings between SLA and SPLA • By 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur, Zaghawa and Masalit troops image

  47. Darfur and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) • 1993-1997. Formation of secret cells to discuss reform of the National Islamic Front • Decision taken to educate ordinary Sudanese—organized to conduct research • Image of dr. Khalil Ibrahim Dr. Khalil Ibrahim—member of founding group

  48. Recollections of conditions that motivated their actions From an interview with Abubaker Hamid Nur There was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and 1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no way of communicating with the international community to ask for help. Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and De Waal, Darfur. 2005, 92-93.

  49. JEM Philosophy • Believed that the problems of Darfur require national solutions • 2003 a 5-Point Manifesto • Unified Sudan • Justice and equality • Constitutional reform guaranteeing rights to the regions • Basic services for Sudanese • Equitable development of economy and human services throughout the country.

  50. The War in Darfur 2003-2005 • SLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with great success in 2003 • By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid • 2004. Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led assaults on villages throughout the region at same time that negotiations were on-going with the United Nations and the African Union