FIREWORKS & SPECIAL EFFECTSUnderstanding the uses of these elements John Jossifakis Director of EventsInnovations Unlimited ME
AGENDA • Fireworks & Special Effects: Understanding the uses of the elements: • Understanding the categories of Fireworks, Pyrotechnics & Special Effects. • Understanding the fireworks terminology. • Incorporating fireworks & special effects in your shows. • Understanding the safety parameters around usage of effects. • Questions & Answers Question – 15 minutes
HOW AERIAL FIREWORKS WORK
CATEGORIES OF FIREWORKS
CATEGORIES OF EXPLOSIVES • 1.1 Category - This designation is used for explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. In other words, the entire load can explode at once if one device is initiated. Typically high explosives like dynamite, TNT, fall into this category. 1.2 Category - Explosives that don't have a mass explosion hazard as in the case of 1.1 explosives, but do have a projection hazard. 1.3 Category - Explosives that don't have a mass explosion hazard, but are a fire hazard, and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard, or both. With a "G" attached behind 1.3, is typically the category that display fireworks fall into. Not Transportable by Airplane.
CATEGORIES OF EXPLOSIVES 1.4 Category - Explosives that only present a minor explosion hazard which are generally confined to the package, and have no explosion fragments of significant size or range. With a "G" attached behind 1.4, this would be the category that consumer fireworks fall under. Transportable by Airplane 1.5. Category - Very insensitive explosives. These explosives can have a mass explosion hazard, but due to their insensitivity, probability of explosion under normal transportation conditions, even in the event of burning, is very small. 1.6. Category - Extremely insensitive explosives. These explosives have no mass explosion hazard. These substances are so insensitive, that the probability of accidental ignition is negligible.
EXPLOSIVES GROUPS "A": Primary explosive substance. "B": Article containing a primary explosive substance and not containing two or more effective protective features. Some articles, such as detonators for blasting, detonator assemblies for blasting and primers, cap-type, are included, even though they contain primary explosives. "C": Propellant explosive substance or other deflagrating explosive substance or article containing such explosive substance. "D": Secondary detonating explosive substance or black powder or article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, in each case without means of initiation and without a propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and containing two or more effective protective features. "E": Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance without means of initiation, with a propelling charge (other than one containing flammable liquid, gel or hypergolic liquid). "F": Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance with its means of initiation, with a propelling charge (other than one containing flammable liquid, gel or hypergolic liquid) or without a propelling charge.
EXPLOSIVES GROUPS "G": Pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance, or article containing both an explosive substance and an illuminating, incendiary, tear-producing or smoke-producing substance (other than a water-activated article or one containing white phosphorus, phosphide or flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquid). "H": Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus. "J": Article containing both an explosive substance and flammable liquid or gel. "K": Article containing both an explosive substance and a toxic chemical agent. "L": Explosive substance or article containing an explosive substance and presenting a special risk (e.g., due to water-activation or presence of hypergolic liquids, phosphides or pyrophoric substances) needing isolation of each type. "N": Articles containing only extremely insensitive detonating substances. "S": Substance or article so packed or designed that any hazardous effects arising from accidental functioning are limited to the extent that they do not significantly hinder or prohibit fire fighting or other emergency response efforts in the immediate vicinity of the package.
TERMINOLOGY Aerial Shell: A cartridge containing pyrotechnic composition, a burst charge, and an internal time fuse or module that is propelled into the air from a mortar. Barge: Water vessel from which fireworks are discharged. Battery: A collection of fireworks devices, such as a group of mortars (finale battery) or a bundle of roman candles (candle battery,) fused together in such a manner that they are fired within a short period of time. Black Match: A fuse made from string that is impregnated with Black Powder. Break an individual burst from an aerial shell, generally producing either a visual effect (stars) or noise (salute). Cake:A chain-fused firework that propels a series of aerial shell, comet or mine effects into the air from collectively attached tubes.
TERMINOLOGY Comet: A pellet of composition which is propelled from a mortar or shell and produces a long tailed effect. Large comets are constructed much like aerial display shells, with attached lift charge ready for loading into mortars. Discharge Site: The area immediately surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display. Display Site: The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted, including the discharge site, the fallout area, and the required separation distance from mortars to spectator viewing areas, but not spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas. Electrical Firing Unit: A device that provides and controls the electric current used to ignite fireworks during a display. Electric Match: An electric device that contains a small amount of pyrotechnic material that ignites when current flows through the device.
TERMINOLOGY Finale:A rapidly fired sequence (barrage) of aerial fireworks, typically fired at the end of a display. Fireworks:Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible effect by combustion, deflagration, or detonation, and that meets the definition of consumer fireworks or display fireworks. Fountain or Gerb: A device that projects a spray of sparks. Instantaneous Fuse Also known as Quick match:Black match that is encased in a loose-fitting paper or plastic sheath to make it burn extremely rapidly. Lift Charge: The composition that propels (lifts) the pyrotechnic device into the air.
TERMINOLOGY Mine: A device containing multiple pyrotechnic effects that are simultaneously ignited and dispersed into the air from mortar or tube. Mortar:A tube from which certain aerial devices are fired into the air. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Organization which provides several standards that outline recommendations for the manufacture, storage, transportation, and execution of fireworks. NFPA Standard 1123 Code for Fireworks Display NFPA Standard 1124 Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and Storage of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles NFPA Standard 1126 Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate Audience
TERMINOLOGY Pyrotechnic Material: A chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration, or detonation. Roman Candle: A chain-fused firework that propels a series of aerial shell, comet or mine effects into the air from a single tube. Stars:Fireworks materials that are compressed into small cubes or round pellets.
EVENT MANAGERS - WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW? • THE CHECK LIST OF EVENT MANAGERS • Understanding the Laws & Regulations of Each Country, City or Emirate. • Understanding the importation process and permission process. • Arrange proper safety, security and storage for the expected product. • Get the proper licenses approved including international pyrotechnician permits. • Understand the site and requirements of the setup. (Is it safe and reliable?). • Speak with various vendors – Do not consider the most inexpensive proposal. • Understand the methodology – feel comfortable (Complacent Vendors are red flags). • Understand the minimum distances – NFPA Regulations. • Have plenty of time in markets that require it (Qatar needs 3-4 weeks to import from UAE). • Access to the fallout zone and working areas must be prohibited to all non-essential staff.
SITE LAYOUT Oblong sites & Circular Sites
SAFETY PARAMETERS OF EFFECTS
UNDERSTANDING VELOCITY – I can light it and run. • VELOCITY COMPARISON • Pyrotechnics deflagrate at a velocity of 350 Meters per second (m/s) • High explosives detonate at velocities that 2,000 Meters – 7,000 Meters per second (m/s) • A nuclear fission bomb velocity travels at 1,000,000 Meters per second (m/s) • Speed of sound ins 342 Meters per second (m/s) • Commercial Aircraft 135 Meters per second (m/s)
UNDERSTANDING BURST – 5.4 Meters = 10mm diameter 5.4 Meters for every 1 cm 27.4 METERS FOR A 50 MM SHELL BURST 109.7 METERS FOR A 200 MM SHELL BURST
Contact John Jossifakis at: Mobile: +974 33208978 John@iu-me.com THANK YOU