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Ms. Garratt – Honors World

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Ms. Garratt – Honors World

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  1. Ms. Garratt – Honors World

  2. Before the revolution French society and government was known as the Ancien RegimeAll the French belonged to 1 of 3 estates

  3. What were the forces of change? • (1) Unequal class system • (2) Enlightenment ideas • (3) Economic Crisis • (4) Lavish lifestyle • (5) Debt crisis • (6) Weak leadership

  4. First Estate - Clergy • Only 1% of the population but owned 10% of land • Paid no direct taxes or taille but collected tithes • Clergy were usually nobles • Provided some social services such as running schools, hospitals, orphanages. • Intolerant of dissent, interfered in politics • Criticized enlightenment for undermining religion

  5. Second Estate - Nobles • Nobility • Occupied best jobs in government, army, courts & Church • 2% of the population yet owned between 25-30% of the land • Paid no taxes

  6. Third Estate • 97% of the population • Divided into three groups. • Peasants made up 75% of this estate • Urban workers • Bourgeoisie - middle class which consisted of bankers, lawyers, doctors, • industrialists, • They paid all the taxes

  7. Third Estate Grievances • They paid all the taxes • Forced corvee • Only nobles allowed to hunt • Ancien regime did not make “enlightenment” sense

  8. Deficit Spending =Financial Crisis • French Indian War • Seven Years War • American Revolution • Lavish court life • Marie Antoinette • To solve the financial crisis Louis XIV borrowed more money & raised taxes on third estate

  9. Estates General • Nobles forced the King to summon the Estates because • Wanted to solve the economic problems and • Did not want higher taxes • Some nobles hoped this would be another Glorious Revolution of 1688 • Disagreement over voting • Each estate had one vote which always favored 1st and 2nd estates

  10. Formation of National Assembly • Clergyman, Sieyes suggests that 3rd estate form a National Assembly (NA) & pass & reform laws in the name of the French people. • 3rd Estate did precisely that • Ended the absolute monarchy • Began representative democracy (1st deliberate act of the revolution)

  11. Tennis Court Oath • Creation of the National Assembly was bold step • 3 days later they were locked out of their meeting place. • Broke down door to a tennis court • Took oath not to leave until they finished writing a constitution

  12. Storming the Bastille • Parisians suspected the King might send troops to Paris. (July) • Parisians stormed the Bastille, a medieval fortress, to obtain weapons. • King lost support of the troops. • This event became symbol of the Fr Rev

  13. Revolts Throughout France • Great Fear • Rumors led to violence throughout France • Destroying feudal records • Burning manors • Stealing food • National Guard • Formed by LaFayette • Hero of 2 worlds Paris Commune • Became the political force of Paris • Sans-cullottes

  14. Great Fear

  15. Declaration of Rights & Man • Embodied principles from DOI, EBOR & US Constitution • Equality under the law • Purpose of gov • Natural rights • Freedom of religion & speech • Ended feudal privileges

  16. March on Versailles • Due to bread shortage thousands of armed women marched to Versailles . • Met with king • King travelled back to Paris with them. • Why?

  17. Civil Constitution of the Clergy • Why did the Nat’l Assembly confiscate Church property? • How was the Church hierarchy impacted by the CCC? • Implications for papal authority? • Who supported this shift in policy? • Who opposed it? • Will this irreparably harm the French Revolution?

  18. New Constitution • Constitutional Monarchy • Legislative Assembly • Suffrage limited to tax paying male citizens • Reformed laws • Forbade labor unions • Compensated nobles for confiscated property

  19. Factionalism • Once new gov was created it was divided by factionalism • Conservatives • Royalists • Emigres • Peasants • Moderates • LaFayette & his National Guard • Limited Monarchists • Radicals • Jacobins • Sans-cullottes • Paris Commune

  20. Royal Family & Supporters • Foreign powers • Feared the French plague • Emigres (nobility) fled • Convinced Louis XVI he was in danger • Escape thwarted at Austrian Netherlands • Increased suspicion of King • Some believe that “sealed his fate” • Fear by foreign monarchs that “plague” would spread. • Austria & Prussia demand that Louis be restored • Austria issues Declaration of Pilnitz • France declares war

  21. Radical Second Phase • War heightened suspicions • Rumors flew • September massacre • Radicals pressured the Legis Assy which dissolved the Constitution and called for new gov ---National Convention • Established republic • Jacobins take control • Try and execute King

  22. End sections 1 & 2