Bell Work – March 31st& April 1, 2011 • Open your textbook to page 482. • Complete the Section 14.1 & 14.2 Checkpoint Questions • Also complete the “Skills Activity” Questions on page 483 & 484
Today’s Agenda • Bell Work/ Channel One • Current Events • Discussion and Notes over Section 14.1 & 14.2 • Grade Chapter 13 Exam • Homework: Read Section 14.3 & 14.4, DON’T FORGET TO STUDY FOR QUIZ ON THURSDAY, SECTION 14.1 & 14.2!
14.1 Section Objectives • Explain why conflict arose over the issue of slavery in the territories after the Mexican-American War. • Identify the goal of the Free-Soil Party. • Describe the compromise Henry Clay proposed to settle the issues that divided the North and the South.
Section Focus Question • How did the question of admission of new states to the Union fuel the debate over slavery and states’ rights? • It threatened to upset the balance between free states and slave states.
Introduction • Why might attempts to compromise fail? • In this section we will study how the admission of new states and acquisition of territories reopened the debate over the expansion of slavery and how Congress compromised on these issues.
Background • Missouri Compromise of 1820 – banned slavery in much of the Louisiana Territory – postponed further conflicts • Why did the admission of Texas and new territories create controversy in Congress? • The addition of Texas, which permitted slavery tipped the balance of powerin Congress toward slaveholding states.
Background • The victory in the Mexican War raised the question – should slavery be allowed in any territory acquired from Mexico?
Slavery and the Mexican-American War • The outbreak of the Mexican War helped revive debates over slavery. • Americans faced the question of whether slavery should be allowed in territory acquired from Mexico.
Wilmot Proviso • Background: The Missouri Compromise did not apply to the huge territory gained from Mexico in 1848. • In 1846 (at the start of the war), Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a plan. • He suggested that Congress ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the United States as a result of the Mexican-American War.
Wilmot Proviso • The Proviso passed the House of Representatives , but failed in the Senate. • The Proviso never became law, but created alarm in the South. Supporters of slavery viewed it as an attack on slavery by the North.
Rise of the Free-Soil Party • The controversy over the Wilmot Proviso led to the rise of a new anti-slavery political party. • 1848 - Democratic candidate for President, Senator Lewis Cass suggested letting the people in each new territory or state decide for themselves whether to allow slavery. • Cass suggested using popular sovereignty in these areas.
Rise of the Free-Soil Party • Popular Sovereignty – meant that people in the territory or state would vote directly on issues, rather than having their elected representatives decide. • August 1848, antislavery Whigs and Democrats joined forces to form a new party called the Free-Soil Party
Free-Soil Party • What was the goal of the Free-Soil Party? • To prevent the spread of slavery to territory gained in the Mexican-American War. • Party chose former Democratic President Martin Van Buren as its candidate in the 1848 Election. • He only won 10 percent of the popular vote. Zachary Taylor won the election
Election of 1848 • Both of the major parties hoped to avoid the slavery issue's divisiveness in 1848. Since President Polk refused to consider a second term, the Democrats turned to Lewis Cass of Michigan, a rather colorless party loyalist. Cass advocated "popular sovereignty" on the slavery issue, meaning that each territory should decide the question for itself — a stance that pleased neither side. The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, hero of the Battle of Buena Vista, whose earlier military blunders had been forgotten. Taylor had no political experience and had never voted. • The election picture was clouded by the presence of two other parties. The Liberty Party, which had run with some success on an anti-slavery platform in 1844, tried again in 1848, but lost its issue to a stronger challenger. The Free-Soil Party nominated former president Martin Van Buren, who garnered nearly 300,000 votes—more than enough to deny victory to Cass and the Democrats.
How did slavery affect the presidential election of 1848? • Democrats – Chose Lewis Cass – favored popular sovereignty • Whigs – Zachary Taylor(Hero from the Mexican-American War)– political views unknown • Free-Soil Party – antislavery Whigs and Democrats formed the party. They demanded that Congress prohibit the expansion of slavery into the territories.
How did slavery affect the presidential election of 1848? • Free-Soil – nominated former president Martin Van Buren • The Free-Soil Party attracted enough votes in 1848 to cost the Democrats the presidency (spoiler) • Zachery Taylor won the election of 1848!
Compromise of 1850 - Background • Debate over California: • Northerners argued that California should be a free statebecause most of the territory lay north of the Missouri Compromise line. • Southern leaders threatened to secede (withdraw)from the nation if California was admitted to the Union as afree state.
Compromise of 1850- Background • Other issues dividing the North and South: • Northerners wanted the slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C. • Southerners wanted northerners to catch fugitive slaves. • After months of debate, the“Great Compromiser,” Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky worked out a plan to satisfy both sides. He did the same for the Missouri Compromise of 1820 as well.
Compromise of 1850 - Proposals • Proposed admitting California as a free state • Abolish the slave trade in the District of Columbia, (D.C.) • Pay Texas $10 million to abandon its claim to the eastern part of the New Mexico Territory
Compromise of 1850 - Proposals • Alsoproposed the New Mexico Territory be organized into two territories – New Mexico and Utah on the basis of popular sovereignty to persuade southerners to accept his terms. • Proposed Congress pass a tougher fugitive slave law.
The Great Debate • Clay’s proposal ignited angry debate in Congress • John C. Calhoun – warned that the time for compromise was past. • Civil War could only be avoided if the North allowed slavery to exist in the territories.
The Great Debate • Daniel Webster (Whig) – supported Clay’s compromise measures – • He argued that because the climate of the territories was not suitable for growing cotton, slavery could not take root there. • And legally barring slavery would anger southerners needlessly; endorsed a stronger fugitive slave law.
The Great Debate • Many northern abolitionists opposed Clay’s compromise proposals on moral grounds • Proslavery southerners rejected any compromise, insisting that slavery be allowed in the territories
The Great Debaters • Henry Clay of Kentucky, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts dominated national politics from the end of the War of 1812 until their deaths in the early 1850s. Although none would ever be President, the collective impact they created in Congress was far greater than any President of the era, with the exception of Andrew Jackson. There was one issue that loomed over the nation throughout their time in power — slavery. They were continuously successful in keeping peace in America by forging a series of compromises. The next generation's leaders were not.
Section 14.2 Objectives • Summarize the main points of the Compromise of 1850. • Describe the impact of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin. • Explain how the Kansas-Nebraska act reopened the issue of slavery in the territories. • Describe the effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
14.2 Section Focus Question • What was the Compromise of 1850, and why did it fail? • It was a compromise that allowed California into the Union as a free state and included a fugitive slave law; it angered both the North and the South.
Compromise of 1850 • In September of 1850, Congress finally passed five bills based on Clay’s proposals. • This series of laws became known as the Compromise of 1850. • President Millard Fillmore supported the Compromise and signed it into law.
The real cause of the premature death of Zachary Taylor has not been able to be established. On the fourth of July in 1850, Zachary Taylor ate a snack of milk and cherries at a celebration of Independence Day. He also sampled a few dishes by citizens who wished him well. He died suddenly five days later on July 9, and the cause of death was listed as gastroenteritis. He was then interred into the Public Vault of the Congressional Cemetery located in Washington, D.C. Then later he was placed in a mausoleum in Louisville, Kentucky, where it is called the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery. • In the late 1980s, it was proposed that Zachary Taylor was murdered by way of poison, and his closest living relative was convinced and the Coroner of Jefferson County, Kentucky ordered an exhumation. His remains were exhumed in 1991 and the Chief Medical Examiner of Kentucky conducted radiological studies of samples of fingernail, hair, and other tissues. Then the remains were returned to the cemetery. The arsenic levels were several hundred times lower than they would have been if he had indeed been poisoned.
Who got what in the Compromise of 1850? • The North: • California admitted to Union as a free state. • The slave trade was banned in the nation’s capital. • However, Congress declared that it had no power to regulate the slave trade between states.
Who got what in the Compromise of 1850? • The South: • Popular sovereignty would be used to decide the question of slavery in the rest of the Mexican Cession. • People in these states created from the territory would vote whether to be a free state or a slave state. • Southerners got a tough new fugitive slave law.
Reactions to the Compromise • Debate revealed deep sectional divisions • The basic issue of whether slavery would be allowed to expand remained unsolved. • What did the Compromise of 1850 do about slavery in the District of Columbia? • It outlawed the buying and selling of slaves there. • Why was slavery in D.C. such an important issue? • As the nation’s capital, it had special significance for northerners and southerners alike.
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 • What was the Fugitive Slave Act? • Law that made it a federal crime to assist runaway slaves. • Authorized the arrestof escaped slaves even in states where slavery was illegal. • Special government officials arrested any person accused of being a runaway slave. • Captured people had no right to prove they had been falsely accused.
How did the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 affect northerners’ views on slavery? • Roused vigorous opposition in the North • People who supported Compromise of 1850 were shocked at the government’s enforcement of the law.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe • Stowe was the daughter of an abolitionist minister. • Why did Stowe write Uncle Tom’s Cabin? • She wanted to make people see slavery as evil. • Published in 1852, the novel was about kindly Uncle Tom, an enslaved man who is abused by the cruel Simon Legree.
HarrietBeecherStowe(1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War.-- Abraham Lincoln
Impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Antislavery novel helped stir northern opposition to the law • Novel dramatized: plight of runaway slaves, showed how slavery degraded slave masters, broke up black families, and made a mockery of Christian morality. • Sold over a million copies. Convinced many northerners that slavery was morally wrong and should be abolished immediately.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 • Sold 300,000 copies inthe first year. • 2 million in a decade!
Kansas-Nebraska Act • 1853 - Illinois Senator, Stephen Douglas proposed legislation for the construction of a railroad to run from Chicago to the Pacific Ocean. • Bill required Congress to organize Kansas and Nebraska into territories. • Bill reopened the issue of expanding slavery • To win southern support, Douglas proposed the slavery in the new territories be decided by popular sovereignty. • Congress passed the act in 1854.
Why did Kansas-Nebraska Act reignite the debate over slavery? • Act organized the lands on the basis of popular sovereignty • By allowing new states formed from territories to be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of admission, thisact repealed the Missouri Compromise. • Act renewed southern hopes of expanding slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 • Why did southerners support the act? • The popular sovereignty clause meant the territories might allow slaveryand enter the Union as slave states. • Why were northerners angry with it? • Under the Missouri Compromise, slavery had not been allowed in the territories; now thatban could be lifted.
Douglas’ Gamble • Stephen Douglas’ idea for the Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted not only from belief in popular sovereignty, but also from his own interests and one critical miscalculation. • Douglas was trying to secure land for the transcontinental railroad through a route controlled by his clients and his own financial interests. • Douglas, however, miscalculated the tremendous growth of antislavery sentiment in the North. The result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to inflame northern suspicions and southern fears.
How did the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act affect Kansas? • Proslavery and antislavery settlers flooded into Kansas within weeks after the bill became law. • The Kansas-Nebraska act pitted antislavery and proslavery forces against one another for control of the new territories • Antislavery forces helped move antislavery families to the area to bolster their numbers • Proslavery forces countered by urging southerners to migrate to the new territories