Unit 6 Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age, and the Great Depression
Emigration VS. Immigration Emigration---the act of leaving one’s country to settle in another country. Immigration---the act of moving into a new country.
Where did the Immigrants come from? • Before 1890 most immigrants came from Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, Norway and Sweden.
Where did the Immigrants come from? • After 1890 through the early 1900s the immigrants came from Italy, Greece, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Turkey, and Russia.
Where did these immigrants settle? • Irish and Italians settled in New York City of Boston, Massachusetts
Where did these immigrants settle? • Germans settled in Cincinnati, Ohio and Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Where did these immigrants settle? • Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Illinois and Cleveland, Ohio
M A I N Causes of World War I MILITARISM • A nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forces • Great Britain and Germany raced to have the largest navies. • France, Russia, and Germany competed in building powerful armies.
M A I N Causes of World War I ALLIANCES • The formation of military agreements among nations. • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882. • Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente in 1907.
M A I N Causes of World War I IMPERIALISM • A nation’s attempt to gain control of weaker nations. • European nations divided much of Africa into colonies in order to obtain raw material and sell goods • European nations forced China to grant them trading rights
M A I N Causes of World War I NATIONALISM • Extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare. • National groups in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) wanted independence. • European nations sought to regain lost territories and/or add land.
Assassination • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated and Serbia was blamed.
Who were the ALLIED Powers? • Great Britain • France • Belgium • Russia • Serbia
Who were the CENTRAL Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Bulgaria • Ottoman Empire (present day known as Turkey)
Lusitania---May 1915 • The Lusitania was a British coal-burning steamer that had already crossed the Atlantic one hundred times, and in 1907, the year of her maiden voyage, the Lusitania, had set a speed record for transatlantic crossings. • The British government, inspired by a German challenge to Britannia’s supremacy of the seas, loaned the Cunard Line the money to build this fast passenger liner over twice as long as an American football field. The British Admiralty dictated many of the ship’s specifications, so that the 30,396-ton vessel could be armed if necessary during war, and stipulated that half the Lusitania’s crew belong to the naval reserves.
The Final Voyage • A crew of 702 attended the 1,257 travelers for the 101st voyage leaving from New York’s Pier 54 on May 1. • Deep in the Lusitania’s storage area rested a cargo of foodstuffs and contraband including: • 4.2 million rounds of ammunition for Remington rifles, 1250 cases of empty shrapnel shells, and eighteen cases of non-explosive fuses.
The Attack • In the morning newspapers of May 1st a rather unusual announcement, placed by the Imperial German Embassy, appeared beside the Cunard Line advertisement. The German “Notice” warned passengers that the waters around the British Isles constituted a war zone wherein British Vessels were subject to destruction. Cunard officials at dockside reassured voyagers and the State Department did not intercede to warn the 197 American passengers away from the Lusitania. • Most Americans were not concerned of any threats. Many people believed that Lusitania was too fast for any submarine.
The Attack At 700 meters the U-20 released a torpedo. A watchman on the starboard bow of the Lusitania saw the torpedo and cried out. Captain Turner was unaccountable below deck. For some reason the bridge did not hear the lookout’s warning called through a megaphone one minute before the torpedo struck. Thirty seconds before disaster a lookout in the crow’s nest spied the torpedo and sounded the alarm. Turner rushed to the bridge. He did not see the torpedo, but he heard the explosion as it ripped into the Lusitania. Within eighteen minutes the “Queen of the Atlantic” sank, killing 1,198—128 of them Americans.
America Decalres War on Germany 1917 • In the beginning the United States wanted to remain neutral. • The war was happening in Europe. Therefore, the war was not America’s concern. • President Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in 1916
America Decalres War on Germany 1917 What pulled the United States into the war? • Unlimited Submarine (u-boat) warfare • The sinking of the Lusitania • The Zimmerman Telegram
Zimmerman Telegram—the final outrage! • March 1917 The Zimmermann telegram released • If the U.S. entered War against Central Powers, Mexico should attack the U.S. and receive as a reward: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
America Declares War • April 2, 1917 • President Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war • April 6, 1917 Congress declares war!!
Central Powers Surrender to the Allies • When? 11th month on the 11th day at the 11th hour November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am Germany agrees to a cease fire! • 8.5 million soldiers dead • 21 million soldiers wounded • Cost of 338 billion dollars
Ending the WarThe Paris Peace Conference • Meeting of the “Big Four” at the Paris Peace Conference • Wilson Proposes his “14 points” • “Big Four” create Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles---The Impact • Physical Impact • Germany must give up one million square miles of land • Financial Impact • Germany is held responsible for the war and is required to pay reparations to the Allies.
The Treaty of Versailles---The Impact 3. Political Impact • German people did not support the new government, Germany in a bad economic condition, Germany was isolated from other countries due to an extreme distrust for Germany, and Germany was no longer seen as a world power.
Provisions of the Treaty Germany must: • accept full responsibility for causing the war • Not be allowed to make or export weapons • Give up territories and lands taken prior to the war • Pay reparations to countries hurt by the war.
Things Change Industries Grow! • Cities began to grow where large populations of people settled. • Cities began to grow where good transportation systems were established. • Cities began to grow in places located near the resources needed to make products. Population, transportation systems and resources are the factors that influence the growth of industry.
The Great Migration The Great Migration is a term used to describe the mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest between the 1910s and 1960s. This event is shown by one of the most famous African American painters of the 20th century, Jacob Lawrence. Lawrence’s Migration Series tells the story of the Great Migration. . • ."
The Great Migration "Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life."
The Great Migration • "There was a shortage of workers in Northern factories because many had left their jobs to fight in the First World War."
The Great Migration • "The factory owners had to find new workers to replace those who were marching off to war."
The Great Migration • "Northern industries offered Southern blacks jobs as workers and lent them money, to be repaid later, for their railroad tickets. The Northbound trains were packed with recruits."
The Great Migration • "Life in the North brought many challenges, but the migrants' lives had changed for the better. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to vote.“
Times are Changing! "Louis Armstrong's station in the history of jazz is umimpeachable. If it weren't for him, there wouldn't be any of us." Dizzy Gillespie, 1971
Harlem Renaissance • Between 1920-1930 an unprecedented outburst of creative activity among African-Americans occurred in all fields of art. This African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as the Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem Renaissance Harlem attracted a prosperous and stylish black middle class from which sprang an extraordinary artistic center. This time period embraced all art-forms, including music, dance, film, theatre and cabaret. Harlem nightlife, with its dance halls and jazz bands, featured prominently in the work of these artists.
Langston Hughes • A poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, short-story writer, autobiographer, columnist, editor, translator, and author of children's books, Hughes published more than fifty volumes of prose and poetry.
Langston Hughes • Hughes became part of the Harlem Renaissance and was known during his lifetime as "the poet laureate of Harlem.” His poems, tell of the joys and miseries of the ordinary black man in America. • DREAMS Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.
Babe Ruth Over the course of his career, Ruth went on to break baseball's most important slugging records, including most years leading a league in home runs, most total bases in a season, and highest slugging percentage for a season. In all, Ruth hit 714 home runs—a mark that stood until 1974.
Henry Ford Henry Ford did not invent the automobile. He didn’t even invent the assembly line. But more than any other single individual, he was responsible for transforming the automobile from an invention of unknown utility into an. innovation that profoundly shaped the 20th century and continues to affect our lives today.
Henry Ford Henry Ford had laid the foundation of the twentieth century. The assembly line became the century’s characteristic production mode, eventually applied to everything from phonographs to hamburgers. The vast quantities of war material turned out on those assembly lines were crucial to the Allied victory in World War II.
Henry Ford High wage, low skilled factory jobs pioneered by Ford accelerated both immigration from overseas and the movement of Americans from the farms to the cities. The same jobs also accelerated the movement of the same people into an ever expanding middle class. In a dramatic demonstration of the law of unintended consequences, the creation of huge numbers of low skilled workers gave rise in
Henry Ford • the 1930s to industrial unionism as a potent social and political force. The Model T spawned mass automobility, altering our living patterns, our leisure activities, our landscape, even our atmosphere.
Charles Lindbergh • Charles Lindbergh completed the first solo transatlantic flight in his plane, Spirit of St. Louis. In 1932, his 20-month-old son was kidnapped. The Lindberghs paid the $50,000 ransom, but sadly their son's dead body was found in the nearby woods weeks later. The events made world news and added to Lindbergh's fame.