1 / 15

Yemen Context Dramatic change over last 3 decades

Yemen Water Translating Political Economy of Refrom Analysis into Policy Reforms and Operations Sabine Beddies MNSSD. Yemen Context Dramatic change over last 3 decades Unification 1990, Civil war 1994 b/w North and South Socio-Economic change: Production system shifts to market economy from

Télécharger la présentation

Yemen Context Dramatic change over last 3 decades

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Yemen WaterTranslating Political Economy of Refrom Analysis into Policy Reforms and Operations Sabine Beddies MNSSD

  2. Yemen Context Dramatic change over last 3 decades Unification 1990, Civil war 1994 b/w North and South Socio-Economic change: Production system shifts to market economy from subsistence agriculture of North command economy of South Political change: New governance system (Hybrid) after unification. Northern governance system applied for new RY President has ruled since 1978 Decentralization Institutional structures of modern state, but low effectiveness of public institutions

  3. Yemen – Context(cont.) Role of state is expanding -> reshapes institutions • Integration of Formal and Informal Institutions • Cooptation/ integration of traditional governance structures (e.g. tribal leaders appointed to high government office) • Traditional system of conflict resolution weakened w/o formal legal system fully effective • Political sensitivity (North-South, tribal shayks) BUT… formalizing role of tribal leaders • Bypasses traditional political & social system of ‘checks and balances’/accountability; • Some tribal leaders acting above law • Increased local power conflict through competition among ruling families • Increased inequitable distribution of assets, e.g. Land and Water, e.g.: • Access to land = access to water: increasing land concentration, privatization of communal land restricts water access, deep well irrigation individualizes water • poor groups have limited access to endowment land • tribal leaders are largest water consumers, but are charged with dispute resolution (incl. water disputes) – conflict of interest Middle East & North Africa

  4. Water Sector and Reform Context • Groundwater resources used up faster than replenished - poor worst affected • Access to safe water & sanitation is low - poor worst served • Urban water supply lifeline benefits every connected HH – poor often excluded: unconnected, large families with above lifeline consumption • Irrigation water use is sub-optimal • Inefficient allocation of water investments • Past reform efforts constrained by low implementation capacity of institutions, capture of benefits, reluctance to reform • 2004: Nat. Water Sector Strategy & Investment Program (NWSSIP): pro-poor, demand-driven measures to address issues • New institutions: MWE, NWRA, GARWSP, NWSA • Reform Strategy AND Investment Program (vision and funds) • Participatory approach to reform: wide range of stakeholders • Past work to build upon (e.g. Energy PSIA, CWRAS, CSA, etc.) Middle East & North Africa

  5. BUT…Political economy of reform hampers NWSSIP Implementation Full reform implementation remains constrained by • Political economy of reform: Vested Interests, e.g. • farmers exploit GW at expense of larger economy and urban/rural consumers; • LG not proactive in preventing illegal drilling – receive fines after detection; • some utility staff reluctant to increase revenues (incl. tariffs) as benefiting from public grants; and to adopt business model with cost recovery, service orientation and customer relations • Institutional fragmentation in water sector (MWE, MAI) • Incomplete decentralization (partially political, and no full fiscal yet) Middle East & North Africa

  6. PSIAs: 2007, 2008 • Agreement b/w Government, WB, GTZ to conduct PSIA to • examine the progress of NWSSIP implementation • analyze the equity of NWSSIP reform • assess & address political economy constraints to reform in • groundwater/irrigation, rural water supply/sanitation (2007); • urban water supply/sanitation (2008 – GTZ funded, WB TA) • “Fit for purpose” PSIA (approach, methods, team) to inform • policy debate and design of NWSSP update and • operation Middle East & North Africa

  7. Middle East & North Africa

  8. Political Economy of Reform Framework:Linking Equity, Power Relations, Development Operations Policy Dialogue Analysis combined with …with broad range of stakeholders • Build coalitions for change (broaden reform ownership) • Communicate effectively • …of NWSSIP • Winners & losers (inclusion/ exclusion) • Supporters & opponents Translate into design & implementation of NWSSIP Update and Multi-donor WSSP …for enhanced development effectiveness

  9. PSIA Approach and Tools • Participatory: PSIA is Yemeni exercise: (GoY/WB/GTZ/stakeholders) • Analysis: spatial and multi-sectoral perspective & team: Combine IWRM, socio-institutional analysis, PE of reform, local context via case studies • Dialogue: Extensive consultations: listen to stakeholders to understand/address reform support/opposition • 2007 PSIA: 3 workshops (Design Dec ’06; Consultation March ’07; Sept ‘07): stakeholders selected focus • 2008 PSIA: 2 workshops (April ‘08, October ‘08) ►Diagrams: Flows of funds/information. Maps: stakeholders’ position ►Discussion how to address identified constraints ►Matrix to operationalize PSIA via policy process & operation • Stakeholders identified priority actions: WSSP & NWSSIP Update • Finalization of report (reflecting stakeholder comments); Dissemination by GTZ YE (closer to stakeholders) Middle East & North Africa

  10. Selected Key Findings Vested interests still hamper full reform implementation, e.g. • Large farmers capture benefits of water (public good) via access to land and tubewell drilling, • Urban network expansion and connection is most the pro-poor strategy, BUT… • Consumer, LG concern: decentralization brings excessive tariff increases w/t visible service improvements • MWE concern: loss of sector control (incl. ability to guide utilities) • MoF concern: fiduciary responsibility for large investment, likely large future transfers of public funds to autonomous entities • Utilities concern: some internal resistance to change to business model, loss of subsidies/public grants • Private sectorconcern: impact of decentralization on its future role and profitability Middle East & North Africa

  11. Power Mapping (produced with stakeholders in 2nd workshop, 2007)

  12. Selected Key Findings (cont.) • Reform is not equitable: water is saved, but at expense of rural economy, employment, income of the poor • Poor irrigating farmers, rural communities, landless hit hardest: cut of diesel price subsidy, higher water prices, lower consumption & incomes • Well-off cope better: diesel and water still affordable; alternatives • NWSSIP is accepted reform strategy and investment program, but implementation is uneven • Best implemented as reform package, • need change in incentive structurePLUSinvestment (e.g. efficient irrigation, low-cost RWSS, urban network expansion & connection of poor HH) • Need substantial extra effort to achieve pro-poor outcomes, 'more income for less water‘, affordable access (urban) • = institutional developmentlinked toinvestment, esp. in RWSS, UWSS Middle East & North Africa

  13. …but progress emerges on NWSSIP process Ownership & momentum for enhanced reform dialoguee.g: • Shift in GoY perception/interest to collaborate with all stakeholders: • NWSSIP dialogue b/w MWE and MAI is promising • BUT…Ownership building needed beyond usual public agencies to further engage civil society, water user groups, Local Gov’ts • 3 JARs (M&E of NWSSIP), IMSC led NWSSIP Update, Incentives Study • Efforts for modern irrigation & demand management show results 2007 PSIA informed JAR; generated demand for 2008 UWSS PSIA Stakeholders agree to enhance NWSSIP equity and operationalize PSIA (2007, 2008) recommendations via • Update of NWSSIP: vision and investment • Multi-donor Water Sector Support Project: funds some of PSIA recommendations: (Toal: US$m 340.55 = GoY: 141.10, IDA: 90.00, KfW: 60.70; RNL: 48.75) Middle East & North Africa

  14. Traction - NWSSIP Update – Nat. Policy Dialogue Middle East & North Africa

  15. Traction – Water Sector Support Project Middle East & North Africa

More Related