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Eisenhower. Election of 1952. 22 nd amendment-1951-2 term limit for president Truman withdrew (weary from Korean War, charges of corruption, etc.)-endorsed IL. Gov. Adlai Stevenson-Democrat

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  1. Eisenhower

  2. Election of 1952 • 22nd amendment-1951-2 term limit for president • Truman withdrew (weary from Korean War, charges of corruption, etc.)-endorsed IL. Gov. Adlai Stevenson-Democrat • Eisenhower (IKE), had been in the public eye for decades, crusade to “clean up the mess in Washington”, promised to secure “an early and honorable peace” in Korea • Stevenson, an intellectual, quick wit, no match for Eisen. Popularity • Eisenhower 442 electoral votes vs. Stevenson 89 • Republican party won significant support in the South for the first time • (Stalin dies 6 weeks after IKE’s inauguration)

  3. “Dynamic Conservatism” at home • Eisen. Hobnobbed with rich men-rich moved into prominent govt. positions • He called his program dynamic conservatism-conservative when it comes to money and liberal with human beings • Budget cutting a high priority • Tax reductions • Did chip away at some programs, but kept basic structure and premise of New Deal; in some ways, expanded it-’54 and ’56 amendments to S.S., expenditures for public health, low-income housing, farm-related aid and federal construction projects

  4. Dynamic Conservatism • 2 major programs • St. Lawrence Seaway-opened Great Lakes w/ locks and dredging • Interstate Hwy System-1956-federal govt. to put up 90% of cost to build 42,500 miles of interstate hwys-serve needs of commerce, defense and convenience

  5. Armistice • Deadlock in Korean peace talks; POWs a ? • Mid-May 1953-Eisen. Stepped up aerial bombardment of N. Korea and had Sec. of St. John F. Dulles secretly threaten to use atomic warfare • Negotiations toward armistice and 38th parallel (July 1953)

  6. End of a Witch Hunt • Korean armistice=end to career of McCarthy • Rep. thought their victory in ‘52 would curb McCarthy’s recklessness-he grew more outlandish with his charges • Overreached himself when he charged that the U.S. Army was “soft” on communism • Televised Senate hearings from April to June 1954-dragging it out, bullying • Dec. ‘54-Senate voted to condemn McCarthy for his contempt of the Senate, his political career collapses, he drank heavily-died 3 years later at age of 48

  7. End of a Witch Hunt • Communist espionage still posed a real danger • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg-convicted of transmitting atomic secrets to the Russians • Fuchs-Br. scientist • Electrocuted June 19, 1953

  8. Internal Security • 1953-Eisen. Appointed Earl Warren as chief justice…decision he regretted later • Seemed conservative, but proved to have a libertarianism streak • The Warren Court (1953-1969) • Rendered the Smith Act a dead letter

  9. Dulles and Foreign Policy • Dulles-Sec. of St. • Containment was needlessly defensive, should instead work toward the liberation of E. Europe…through peaceful means • Yet, still made no significant departure from containment • Endorsed “massive retaliation” to get “more bang for the buck”…budgetary concerns • Heart of the New Look-assumption that nuclear weapons could be used in limited-war situations, allowing reductions in conventional forces and thus save money (now have H-Bombs) • More reliance on deterrent power, less on defensive power

  10. Dulles and Foreign Policy • “brinkmanship”-fears of nuclear disaster; Dulles argued in 1956 that a nation sometimes had to go to the brink of war • A firm stand can halt further aggression • Employed in 1954 in Indochina

  11. Indochina • The Origins: French military forces had established control over French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) in the 1800s-ruled it with an iron fist and exploited the resources; began to face resistance, especially after WWII • U.S. had a difficult decision-on one hand, it supports decolonization, but on the other, France is an ally; Truman opted to support France to ensure a strong, anticommunist grouping • Vietnam Northern Vietnam: (Vietminh) will be led by Ho Chi Minh, embrace communism and eventually gets the Soviets and Chinese to rally to his cause of independence (Vietcong are people in South Vietnam who are communist and loyal to the North) Southern Vietnam: will be led by Ngo Dinh Diem • America will increase its aid to the French ($2.6 billion between 1950-1954)

  12. Indochina • Dien Bien Phu: 1954, the French lost their 8-yr struggle to regain Vietnam when the Vietminh trapped a large French garrison and hold it siege for 55 days: French surrendered • Geneva Accords: (May 1954) France grants independence to Cambodia, Laos, divides Vietnam at the 17th parallel into two countries-North and South Vietnam; Vietminh in N., Fr. To remain in S., in 1956, the country would hold free elections to unify Vietnam

  13. Indochina • Dulles responds to growing Comm. Influence in Vietnam by organizing SEATO • SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)-1954- leaders of 7 countries plus the U.S. met in Manila to form a mutual defense agreement for SE Asia • SEATO did not parallel NATO (not a common defense organization) nor was it primarily Asian (only 3 plus U.S. , Britain, France, Aust. And New Zealand) (pactomania)

  14. Indochina • 1956 elections: looked as if Ho Chi Minh would win; Diem refused to participate, Fr. Withdrew, by 1957, communist rebel groups were committed to undermining the Diem govt. and uniting Vietnam under a communist flag (National Liberation Front) • Diem was unpopular even in the South-Diem was a Roman Catholic in an overwhelmingly Buddhist nation; Diem did little to build his political base, in fact, he did much the opposite, passing anti-Buddhist legislation and refusing significant land reforms, was viewed as corrupt; his lack of support hurt the war vs. the North; only the support of the U.S. kept the unpopular leader in power

  15. 1956 Election • Rep.-Eisenhower, VP Nixon, endorsed “modern Republicanism” • Dem.-Adlai Stevenson, less favortism to big business • Neither side generated much interest • Landslide victory for Eisenhower: 457 to 73 electoral votes

  16. Crisis in the Middle East • METO-Middle East Treaty Organization-Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan…and Britain (Baghdad Pact Organization)…linked NATO (Turkey) and SEATO (Pakistan) • Lost its credibility when Iraq, only Arab member, withdrew • Arab league-Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen…committed to war on Israel

  17. Crisis in the Middle East • Rise of Egyptian general, Gamal Abdel Nasser • Contention-Suez Canal (Fr.-Egyptian venture) • 1875-Br. Had acquired largest block of shares; Nasser’s nationalist regime presses for British withdrawal, U.S. supports the demand • 1954-Anglo-Egyptian treaty provides for Brit. Withdrawal

  18. Crisis in the Middle East • Egypt refused to align itself in the Cold War; U.S. courts support-offers a loanto build a hydroelectric plant at Aswan on the Nile River • Israel upset with this proposal • 1956-Nasser increases trade with Soviet bloc and recognizes China-Dulles cancels the loan offer • Nasser took control of the Suez Canal Co.-Br. And Fr. Were furious • No negotiations able to be reached; Oct. 29, Israel invades the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula (get rid of Arab guerrillas, but synchronized with Br. And Fr. Bombings of Egyptian air bases and ports)

  19. Crisis in the Middle East • Suez War-U.S. in a dilemna • Support Allies/see Nasser crushed? OR defend U.N. charter and champion Arab nationalism vs. imperial aggression-Option 2 • Unusual-Soviets side w/ U.S.

  20. Repression in Hungary • Khrushchev in (1956)-process of de-Stalinization • Put Stalinist leaders in E. Europe on the defensive, some leaders took action • Hungary-1956-fighting broke out in Budapest, followed by Imre Nagy, a moderate Comm., as head of the govt.; Soviets withdrew their forces • Nagy announces its withdraw from the Warsaw Pact (May 1955, communist military alliance; alliance of Eastern European countries under the control of communism)-brings Soviet tanks back • Khrushchev more relaxed, but refused to allow a break • A more compliant leader, Janos Kadar, was installed (Nagy executed)

  21. Reactions to Sputnik • Arms Race-Competition between the U.S. and USSR to build more weapons • Development of the H-bomb (hundreds of times more powerful than the first atomic bombs); 1952-U.S. explodes its first; 1953-USSR does the same • Space race-fiercely compete to launch satellites and spacecraft • Sputnik I-Soviets launch Oct. 1957; one month later they launch Sputnik II-sending a dog, Laika, into space • Jan. 1958-U.S. launches its first satellite, Explorer I • Soviets-1st person-Yuri Gagarin; Americans-Allen Shephard

  22. Reactions to Sputnik • Increased spending on education and space programs in the U.S. • National Defense Education Act-giving federal aid to schools and colleges, especially for projects designed to improve instruction in math and science • 1958-U.S. est. NASA-National Aeronautics and Space Administration-to direct the space program • U.S. took the lead in the space race in 1969 when Neil Armstrong and “Buzz” Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the moon

  23. Problems Abroad • Middle East • Eisenhower Doctrine (1958)-Congress approved a resolution that promised to extend economic and military aid to Middle East nations and to use armed forces if necessary to assist any such nation vs. armed aggression by any Communist country • Nasser-w/ prestige from Suez Crisis, creates United Arab Republic w/ Syria • Coup in Iraq-threw out pro-western govt. and killed the leaders • Lebanon-appealed to U.S. for support to ward off a similar fate; Eisen. Ordered in 5000 marines into Lebanon • British forces went in to Jordan at the request of King Hussein • U.S. forces withdrew in Oct. 1958 once the factions reached a compromise in Lebanon

  24. Problems Abroad • East Asia • 1958-People’s Republic of China renewed its shelling of the Chinese Nationalists on offshore islands • U.S. fleet began to escort Nationalist convoys, but stop short of Chinese waters • Cease-fire ordered-China reserved the right to bombard the islands on alternate days; tensions between Communist China and Taiwan continued to fester

  25. Problems Abroad • Berlin • Island of w. capitalism w/in Soviet control; a showplace of democracy and prosperity • Iron curtain • Although borders were sealed, people could still pass • Little hope of resolving conflicting views on Berlin and German unification • Talks amongst the Big 4-U.S., Soviets, G.B. and France • Khrushchev visited the U.S., neither wanted confrontation, agreed to “peaceful coexistence” • Berlin situation was abnormal

  26. U-2 Summit • U2 Incident-U.S. spy plane shot down by a Soviet rocket (over the Soviet Union…had been doing so for about 3.5 years on secret missions) • Gary Powers-pilot, captured, put on t.v. as proof • Eisen. Abandons efforts to cover up the incident and takes full responsibility • 5 days later, Khrushchev withdrew an invitation for Eisen. To visit the Soviet Union and called upon him to repudiate spy flights, Eisen. Refused-all discussion cut off • Powers is released in exchange for a Soviet spy

  27. Castro’s Cuba • Fidel Castro led a revolution to est. a new govt. in Cuba in 1959; 2 years of guerrilla warfare vs. dictator Fulgencio Batista; Pres. Eisenhower recognized the new govt. • Castro executed more than 700 opponents of the rev. and jailed many more; new govt. improved social programs, took land from rich to give to the poor (nationalizing the farmland) • U.S. had a lot to lose with the land policy-U.S. businesses owned 40% of the sugar industry, 80% utilities, 90% mineral resources • Castro advised his rev. was not Communist, but the U.S. was suspicious and applied pressure on Cuba; by acting on the assumption the Communists already had the upper hand, they may have ensured that fact

  28. Cuba-cont. • Before breaking off diplomatic relations with Cuba, Eisenhower authorized the CIA to begin training anti-Castro Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba • President Kennedy came into office and approved an invasion that was to land at the Bay of Pigs on April 17, 1961-invasion failed spectacularly; failure embarrassed the Kennedy administration

  29. Early Years of the Civil Rights Movement • Race relations were threatening to explode the domestic tranquility of the U.S. • Eisen. Was committed to civil rights in principle • Limited progress: his preference for local/state action over federal involvement and doubt that laws could change racial attitudes • Since mid-1930s, NAACP resolved to test Plessy v. Ferguson ruling • Thurgood Marshall emerged as a chief NAACP lawyer (1st S.C. justice) • 1950-Sweatt v. Painter-S.C. ruled a black law school in TX. Was not equal to state’s white schools, court ordered the state to remedy the situation

  30. Brown Decision • Several challenges to state laws mandating segregation in public schools • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas w/ NAACP attorneys • Chief Justice Earl Warren-5/17/54-separate but equal has no place in public education • Year later, Brown II-court directed it must be done “with all deliberate speed” • Resistance in the South (Citizens’ Councils-middle and upper class version of KKK-used economic coercion-could lose job, loans, ins. Policies) • “Southern Manifesto”-101 members of Congress signed, denounced ruling, “a clear abuse of judicial power”

  31. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Dec. 1, 1955-Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man in Montgomery, AL. • Black community leaders organized at Dexter Avenue Baptist to lead a massive bus boycott • New charismatic leader, MLK Jr. emerged (Thoreau, Ghandi) • Formed carpools, walked, etc. • Won a federal case (S.C.) they initiated vs. bus segregation-1956-Separate but equal can’t be followed safely as a correct statement of the law • To keep the spirit alive, King and others formed the SCLC-Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957 • Few days later, King found unexploded dynamite bomb on his porch

  32. Civil Rights Act • Hoping to exploit divisions between northern and southern Democrats and reclaim some black vote for Republicans • Civil Rights Act 1957-1st civil rights law since Recon. • Est. the Civil Rights Commission, Civil Rights Division in the Justice Dept. (try to stop interference with voting)

  33. Desegregation-Little Rock • OrvalFaubus-called national guard to prevent 9 black students from entering Little Rock’s Central High; had to withdraw guard due to court order • White mobs forced local authorities to remove the students • Eisenhower ordered 1000 paratroopers of the 101st airborne to protect the black students-soldiers stayed through the year • 1-Ernest Greene-graduated

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