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T he Argument Essay

T he Argument Essay

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T he Argument Essay

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  1. The Argument Essay Kim Miller-Davis

  2. First: What is Argument?

  3. Is it this?

  4. Or this?

  5. In recent years, pop culture has made arguing look like something reasonable people should avoid. Like this:

  6. And This….

  7. Although sometimes arguing can be entertaining,

  8. Good Arguing has a Higher Purpose.

  9. To Convince

  10. Warning: Don’t Confuse Argument with Fact or Opinion

  11. A Fact is: A statement that can be proven or disproven The Eifel Tower is located in Paris, France.

  12. An Opinion is: A statement of personal preferenceI like chocolate chip cookies.

  13. An Argument is: A reasonable claim that can be backed up with evidence or support.Teachers should be held accountable for student achievement on standardized tests.

  14. You cannot argue facts or opinions Why Not?

  15. Let’s Try: The Eiffel Tower is not located in Paris, France

  16. You do NOT like chocolate chip cookies!

  17. Now try this one: Teachers should not be held accountable for student achievement on standardized tests.

  18. You might not agree with the statement, but it fits the requirement of a reasonable claim that opposes the premise of the original argument

  19. Let’s ReviewAn Argument: • Is a reasonable claim • Can be backed up with evidence & support • Has reasonable opposition

  20. The Argumentative Essay: is structured around the writer’s claim so that all of the written material is designed to persuade the readers that the claim is valid.

  21. There are Four Basic Types of Claims • Substantiation • Evaluation • Policy • Definition

  22. Substantiation: Claim of Cause/Effect Video Games cause violent behavior.

  23. Evaluation: Claim of Judgment Scuba Diving is the best form of exercise.

  24. Policy: Claim of Recommendation The school should institute a ban on cell phones.

  25. Definition: Claim of Category Protesting the President of the United States is an act of treason.

  26. Which type of claim is this?

  27. Claim 1: The 9/11 Attacks were not criminal actions; they were acts of war.

  28. Claim 2: The United States should provide aid to the Syrian people.

  29. Claim 3: This nation’s fascination with fast food is the reason for our high rates of obesity.

  30. Claim 4: Returning to College is a good idea for returning veterans.

  31. WHY do we use argument?WHAT is an argument?WHICH types exist?Now, let’s talk about--How?

  32. The Story of the Pied Piper of Hamlin

  33. Why was the Piper so successful? • He knew his audience • He made a specific, clear claim • He used evidence to support his claim • He stayed on track • He used a combination of appeals • He reinforced his position

  34. Definition of a Piper • a charismatic person who attracts followers • offers strong enticement • a leader

  35. Know Your Audience • Who are they? • What appeals to them? • What are their possible objections?

  36. Clear & Specific Claim You should be able to state the basic premise of your argument in a few words

  37. Use Evidence & Explain It You must use a combination of facts, statistics, and anecdotal examples. You must also explain how that evidence proves your point.

  38. Stay on Track Don’t get bogged down in details and side tracks. If you get lost, so will your reader.

  39. Use a Combination of Appeals • Logos=Reason • Pathos=Emotion • Ethos=Practicality, Ethics, & Goodwill

  40. Reinforce Your Position If you do not emphatically remind your reader of your position and its importance & validity, your reader will lose interest.

  41. The Argument Essay: • Purpose: To prove an argument • An argument is not a fact or opinion • Argument=claim that can be backed up with evidence and support • Four Types of Claims: Substantiation, Evaluation, Policy, & Definition • Use the Pied Piper as a Model

  42. Structuring the Written Argumentthrough PIPER Prepare the Reader Introduce the Claim Provide the Evidence Explain & Connect the Evidence Reinforce the Claim

  43. Don’t forget: To Be a PIPER, You must also avoid logical fallacies

  44. Logical Fallacies A Fallacy is an error in reasoning. They tend to occur for three major reasons: • False or weak premises • Irrelevance • Ambiguity

  45. Ad Hominem Attacking the character of the arguer rather than the argument

  46. Bandwagon Suggesting that a person should agree to something because it is popular