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semantic change n.
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Semantic change

Semantic change

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Semantic change

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  1. Semantic change Meaning changes in various ways

  2. Semantic change • Metaphorical Extension is a very important process of semantic change

  3. Metaphorical Extension • 道dao traveling → a route → a channel → a way → doctrine, politics → a religious philosophy

  4. Metaphorical Extension • 封 feng1 grant of land → seal → envelope → Classifier

  5. Metaphorical Extension • One or more semantic features are extended such that the word is applied to a wholly new context

  6. Metaphorical Extension • foot ‘body part’ → base of a mountain, bed, stairs, etc. • broadcast ‘throw seeds out broadly’→ send out TV, radio waves • homerun (baseball) → (football ) touchdown → a big success • hail mary ‘a prayer’ → a long pass for a touchdown at the end of a half or game • prayer → a shot with little chance to go in • ace ‘highest card’ → to get an A on a test

  7. Metaphorical Extension nuclear weapon/s → [via clipping] nuke/s (N) → [via functional shift] nuke (V) ‘destroy with nuclear weapons’ → ‘to microwave’ as in nuke some popcorn

  8. Metaphorical extension • Metaphorical extension is probably the primary means of vocabulary expansion

  9. Reduction • Applies to a smaller circle of meaning hund ‘all dogs’ → hound; specific breed (dog < docga took over as general word) corn ‘grains’ (usually referred to principle crop in a region) → maize meat ‘all food’ → animal flesh

  10. Elevation • Applies to a higher value of meaning knight ‘youth’ → honorable rank’ squire ‘attendant’ → gentleman; landowner

  11. Degradation • Applies to a lower value of meaning lust ‘enjoyment, pleasure’ → sinful pleasure (usu.) of sexual nature lewd ‘of laity, not clerical’ → ignorant → base → obscene wench ‘female child, servant’ → lewd woman mistress ‘woman in authority, ownership’ → a woman kept by a (usu. married) man

  12. Change in circumstances hall ‘large room in a castle or building’ → corridor crescent ‘increasing’ → shape of moon in 1st Quarter → a shape, as in a crescent roll