past perfect pluperfect n.
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Past Perfect (Pluperfect)

Past Perfect (Pluperfect)

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Past Perfect (Pluperfect)

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  1. Past Perfect(Pluperfect)

  2. The past perfect isn’t hard to explain, but we don’t always use it when we should. The past perfect (also called “pluperfect”) is the past of the past. Juan had already eaten when we arrived. Both actions (“eaten” and “arrived”) are in the past. But the eating happened before the arriving. So “arrived” is past, and “had eaten” is the past of that—the past of the past.

  3. Pluperfect(Past Perfect)(Pluscuamperfecto) The past perfect (also called the pluperfect and, in Spanish, the pluscuamperfecto), remember, is the past of the past and translates with “had” in English. ALL perfect tenses get a helping verb and a past participle: present perfect he haseaten past perfect he hadeaten future perfect he will haveeaten conditional perfect he would haveeaten

  4. As you saw, the present perfect tense has a set of helping verbs that come from “haber”: he hemos has habéis ha han The same is true of the past perfect. The helping verbs for the past perfect are the imperfect form of “haber”: había hablado habíamos hablado habías hablado habíais hablado había hablado habían hablado

  5. Drop the –ar and add –ado: hablar hablado nadar nadado pensar pensado almorzar almorzado llegar llegado estar estado Drop the –er or –ir and add –ido: comer comido poder podido leer leído querer querido asistir asistido venir venido And don’t forget the irregular ones: volver vuelto poner puesto abrir abierto cubrir cubierto escribir escrito ver visto morir muerto decir dicho hacer hecho romper roto Don’t forget how to form the past participle:

  6. Note that the endings on “haber” for the past perfect are the endings for the imperfect tense: había habíamos habías habíais había habían Perfect ALWAYS means that you’ll have a form of “haber” (have, has, or had in English) and a past participle. The present perfect is the PRESENT tense of “haber” + the past participle. The past perfect tense is the IMPERFECT (PAST) tense of “haber” + the past participle. Guess what the future perfect tense is composed of. But that’s another lesson.

  7. Click here to go to a brief practice exercise. Click here to go to your homework.