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ETHNIC CLEANSING

ETHNIC CLEANSING

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ETHNIC CLEANSING

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  1. ETHNIC CLEANSING the elimination of an ethnic group by deportation, mass murder or threats in order to create a ethnically homogeneous region

  2. removal of physical /cultural evidence of the targeted group • destruction of homes& farms • desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship.

  3. recently found in Europe and Africa

  4. After WWII, borders were redrawn and ethnic groups were forced to move:

  5. MOST recent in the BALKANS

  6. WWI began over assassination of Franz Ferdinand

  7. YUGOSLAVIA created after WWI

  8. Josip Tito • 1953- 1980 • Socialist dictator • “benevolent?” • Good economy promoted unity

  9. Yugo falls apart after Tito’s death • When separate nations, NOT all borders matched ethnic groups…. • Montenegro 2006 • Kosovo 2008

  10. BOSNIA- HERZEGOVINA • Serbs & Croats did not want to live w/Muslim majority

  11. Tried to break away and unite w/ Serbia, Croatia • And attempted ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims to strengthen case

  12. Srbrenica Massacre, 1995

  13. Treaty in 1996 made 3 regions • Although Serbs are only 1/3, Received ½ of land

  14. KOSOVOSerbia launched ethnic cleansing v. Albanians- 750,000 fled-NATO launched airstrike- free in 2008-opposed by Russia

  15. BALKANIZED: term used to describe a small area that could never be unified due to so many ethnicities w/ complex animosities BALKANIZATION: Process by which a state breaks down due to ethnic conflicts

  16. Will large nations jump into Balkanized areas?

  17. AFRICA: • Conflict because boundaries do NOT equal ethnic groups

  18. Europeans drew the lines after WWII Africans saw themselves as TRIBES, not states

  19. Central Africa: long war: HUTUS farmers in Rwanda/Burundi and TUTSIS (15%) cattle herders Tutsis took Rwanda, Hutus became serfs

  20. Rwanda was a Germ, then Belgium colony • 1962: independence • Hutus win elections, retaliate against Tutsis • One million killed in 1994

  21. Tutsis survivors launched counterattack- forced 2 million Hutus to flee • Today- calm. • Democratic elections

  22. War spilled over to other nations: Dem Rep Congo • 5.4 million dead since 2009 • Deadliest war since WWII