Networks, Emerging Technologies and the Internet of Things New Challenges in the Internet Age
Social Networking Web 2.0 = social networking + management of user created social content Social networking is a way to embrace the collective tribal power of social groups – whatever their origin To create new content To pump up the scale and dynamism of the data, and To make it exciting for users to return, review and potentially to purchase Social networks are the new tools of revolution
Society and Technology Chain of Influences • Individual • Society • Economy
The IndividualCreativity Globalization and commoditization make marketing of commodity (undifferentiated ) products nearly impossible Market differentiation is mandatory “Creativity” (whatever that means) is the way to differentiate products and services Where do you find Creative People?
Understanding and Managing Creative People Understand current theory regarding the character and measurement of creativity Understand some of the personality traits of creative people Understand the demographics and personal histories common to creative people Identify opportunities for leading creative people to do their best work Learn some specific managerial methods for motivating and keeping your creative workforce
Human Brains Our brain evolved to handle specific challenges in our evolutionary environment There appear to have been two bursts in absolute brain size one 1.8 million years ago when our brains jumped to about 850 cm3 in volume and another about 150 thousand years ago when our brains reached the modern 1400 cm3 in volume The bursts appear to have been associated with climate changes in Africa which pushed man out of the forests and onto the more exposed and competitive savannahs
Brains Our brain is a very expensive organ drawing up to 25% of an adult’s energy (and 60% of an infant’s) As a percentage of body weight, it is 15-20 times larger than those of other mammals Much of that added tissue weight is dedicated to a society of ‘murder, reciprocity, trust, hoarding and stealing’ that arose when early man was forced out into the more brutal environment of the savannahs (Per economist Paul Seabright)
Social network size changes both brain structure and function There is a linear 3-to-1 relationship between a monkey’s dominance behavior and the growth of key regions in their neocortex Conclusion: cognitive demands of a larger social network that has resulted in the growth of brain regions beneficial to social behavior in primates Primates with bigger brains tended to have a bigger circle of friends
Dunbar’s Number As average group size increases in monkeys and apes, so does neocortex ratio Reproduced from Dunbar and Shultz (2007)
Gray matter increases with social network size P < 0.005. Reproduced from Sallet et al. (2011).
Does social networking technology allows humans to surpass the Dunbar number? (>150 friends) Bruno Goncalves study of 3 million Twitter users over 4 years and 380 million tweets When people start tweeting, their number of friends increases until they become overwhelmed between 100 and 200 “friends” as Dunbar predicts Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1105.5170: Validation of Dunbar's Number In Twitter Conversations
Innovation and Creativity: Drivers of Global e-Markets Creativity and abstract thought Arose out of the early savannah culture of of ‘murder, reciprocity, trust, hoarding and stealing’ But creativity underlies the process of invention; indeed a useful definition is that inventions are the end product of the creative process. As innovations are commercialized inventions, the whole process of innovation is more or less predicated on the activities of creative individuals.
Three domains Creativity involves relations between three domains: (1) the creative person; (2) the domain in which the creative act occurs (e.g., mathematics, music, literature); and (3) the field of practitioners that set the ‘standard’ (e.g., other mathematicians, museum curators, literature readers, and critics). Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihaly
Creative Traits Being smart but naive, realistic yet imaginative, simultaneously rebellious and respectful Psychological androgyny—being on one hand very sensitive and more "feminine" and on the other aggressive and offensive stimulus freedom—is what we might call the ability to think outside the box are combinations of creative traits.
Measures of CreativityThey are all pretty bad Studies have shown that beyond a certain level of IQ probably around 120, there is no clear correlation between intelligence and creativity true creativity probably requires some degree of intelligence Lewis Terman’s tests of gifted children discovered a cognitive disconnect between individuals with more than 30 points IQ differential If consumer intelligence tends to hover around an ‘average’ IQ of 100, then perhaps a slightly above average intelligence may yield the best innovations. Psychologist Ellen Winner has noted about gifted children for those who do make it into the roster of creators, a certain set of personality traits proves far more important than having a high general IQ Creators are hard-driving, focused, dominant, independent risk-takers"
Tolerance of ambiguity Is necessary condition for creativity Psychologists John Dacey and Kathleen Lennon emphasize tolerance of ambiguity The ability to think, operate, and remain open-minded in situations where the rules are unclear, where there are no guidelines, or where the usual support systems (e.g., family, school, society) have collapsed
Loss of a father A particular characteristic that appears to be shared by many creative individuals is the loss of a father early in life Among nearly a hundred creative interviewees, Csikszentmihalyi found that no fewer than three out of ten men and two out of ten women were orphaned by the time they reached their teens. Lost fathers are a complex mixture of burden and opportunity On one hand, there is the huge psychological burden of having to live up to the perceived expectations of the missing father On the other, such youngsters have the immense opportunity of truly inventing themselves Philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre observed that "the death of Jean Baptiste [Sartre's father] was the big event of my life: it sent my mother back to her chains and gave me freedom.... Had my father lived, he would have lain on me full length and would have crushed me. As luck had it, he died young."
Youth Some of the most creative mathematicians, lyric poets, and composers of music were extraordinarily young when they produced their best work Most painters, novelists, and philosophers, on the other hand, continue to create and are often at their peak well into old age Music critic and novelist Marcia Davenport (1903–96) expressed this reality beautifully: "All the great poets died young. Fiction is the art of middle age. And essays are the art of old age." Psychologist Howard Gardner makes a similar distinction between mathematicians and scientists on one hand and artists on the other: It is important to note here a decisive difference from creation in the sciences or mathematics. Individuals in mathematics begin to be productive at an early age and certainly have the option of making numerous innovations during their early years.
Psychosis The most enduring (and perverse) speculations about creativity involve its correlation with madness Psychologist Arnold Ludwig examined the lives of more than a thousand creative individuals and found that about 28% of the prominent scientists experienced at least some sort of mental disturbance (the fraction increased to 87% among outstanding poets). Psychologist Donald MacKinnon conducted an extensive psychometric evaluation of many creative mathematicians, architects, and writers his findings showed that the creative individuals consistently scored higher on dimensions that are indicative of various affective disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and paranoia Csikszentmihalyi’s observation that creative individuals can alternate between the two extremes of being rebellious or highly disciplined – is consistent with the sorts of psychoses associated with creativity.
How Google and Microsoft hire, understand and get the most out of creative Individuals Hire smart problem-solvers: Microsoft gives their applicants problem solving tests; Google has been known to place difficult problems on highway billboards, not allowing applicants to the next stage of application unless they can solve the problem shown This is Elitist! Go to your local branch of Mensa Talk to the members Hire the best and brightest! This is the foundation for all other steps in management!
Entrepreneurial Mindset Encourage an ‘us’ versus ‘them’ mentality: Constantly remind employees that their competition is other companies, not their colleagues. Product cycles are now so short, and markets so volatile, that failure to stay competitive can quickly put the company at risk. Sustain a start-up mentality: Not just Google and Microsoft, but Dell, Amazon and other successful companies fight complacency by maintaining an ever-present sense of urgency that the business must succeed. Watch costs, keep project teams small, and delivery times short. Keep the office environment comfortable but frugal.
Tolerance / Diversity Recruit for diversity, hire for philosophy; In addition to problem solving, workers should satisfy two other goals. Philosophy and character should be aligned with the firm. Cisco actively seeks out firms for acquisition, but the acquisition goes ahead, or is halted based on whether the two cultures fit. A poor cultural match provides a quick path to disappointment. But, a great creative culture allows latitude for diversity – of ideas, backgrounds, knowledge, and so forth. Diversity drives creativity by forcing different ideas together. Part of the creative firm’s culture has to be one that embraces a wide range of ideas and people. Creativity is all about seeing things differently. Assembling a group of people who have a mix of nationalities and cultures can spark ideas and generate energy. But if workers aren't on the same page philosophically, these can turn toxic
Communication Skills Speaking skills; The same introversion and focus that makes a creative worker brilliant can trip them up when presenting their ideas to others. Engineers and programmers benefit greatly from learning a bit of the language of accountants and financial types; or of the marketing staff. Public speaking and regular presentation of ideas should be encouraged even if individuals are not that good at it, because it will change the way they think about their own work. Working within a context can also help creatives better sell their ideas. Communication is a skill that few young engineers or designers know or appreciate, yet it's the one that can determine whether their designs are accepted or rejected.
Promote creativity Allow 10% to 20% of employees time for their own projects; this is a source of new insights and products for the firm, and a way for knowledge workers to actively recharge their enthusiasm.
Fun Add liberal doses of fun; Being creative on demand is hard work. It is intellectually taxing and emotionally exhausting. There needs to be latitude for workers to break away from their problem, shift gears, and do something else for a while until they regain their enthusiasm. If you have hired well, creative employees will be too busy solving problems from them to disappoint you by taking advantage of the last suggestion.
The Information Society: And the future of ‘Careers’ J. Christopher Westland
The Future of Career Jobs – the basis of ‘an economy’ – have changed throughout history Structured ‘jobs’ are only two centuries old Dating from the Industrial revoluation Where factories were fixed in place And only operated when the power was on This is now less than 10% of developed economies What will future jobs do? Write (what?) Entertain? (improv?) Teach (what? … why do you need a degree) Program the teaching machines? Research (what, why?) Administration (why? How?) What Kind of Job will you Have in the future?
History of the Job What was ‘a job’ in Europe 10,000 BC? What was ‘a job’ in Burgundy (France) in 1000 AD? What was ‘a job’ in London (England) in1850 AD? What was ‘a job’ in Detroit (US) in1950 AD? What was ‘a job’ in New York (US) in 2005 AD? What was ‘a job’ in Bentonville, Arkansas (US) in 2005 AD? What will be ‘a job’ in _____ (_____) in 2025 AD?
Digital Information grows Exponentially • The amount of data in the world has been growing exponentially for decades. • Global data was 2.8 zettabytes (ZB) in 2012 • or 2.8 trillion GB generated annually • Only around 0.5% of this is used for analysis, and most of this data and analysis is in the financial sector, of the sort that might conceivably be audited. • Volumes of data are projected to reach 40ZB by 2020, or 5,247 GB per person
The original Internet concept was unfit for most Information Economy tasks • Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley, developed the math for modern communications technology between 1910-1950s • Early technology was unsafe for strategic and military use, because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an attack • This was the motivation for Internet protocol • J. C. R. Licklider, proposed in his January 1960 paper, "Man-Computer Symbiosis” a network of computers connected by wide-band communications, and able to large electronic datastores • Sci-Fi when you consider that communication speeds were ~10KB and storage was ~$100,000 / MB • Leonard Kleinrock • developed mathematics for • packet-switching • promoting the creation of alternatives • to circuit-switching technology
How the Internet became Useful • In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN wrote a proposal to implement Clarke’s vision in a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture • Berners-Lee created the first web server on a A NeXT Computer with the first web browser, WorldWideWeb. • On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due; • the announcement came two months after its predecessor, U of Minnesota’s Gopher was no longer free to use • Jim Clark implemented the Netscape browser as an alternative to interactive cable TV, and started the e-commerce build out with Netscape’s 1995 IPO.
The Internet of Things J. Christopher Westland
Social Networking • Web 2.0 = social networking + management of user created social content • Social networking is a way to embrace the collective tribal power of social groups – whatever their origin • To create new content • To pump up the scale and dynamism of the data, and • To make it exciting for users to return, review and potentially to purchase • Social networks are the new tools of revolution
Context of Search with Massive Databases • Yahoo! organized data in a catalog, or directory of links laboriously entered by thousands of workers • Google organized data automatically through PageRank • Using the link structure of the web rather than just the characteristics of documents to add search information on relevance • It provides better search results because it inherently used the context of data • The link structure is part of the information input by users, and provides the contextual insight needed for searching the Web
Web 2.0 @ Work • eBay creates knowledge through the collective activity of all its users • As they rate the social activity of others that they trade with • Amazon sells the same products as competitors, • but engages their customers to write an unparalleled number of user reviews • Previously, products might be designated as an ‘experience good’ (I have to use it before I know whether I like it), • But with Amazon, almost no good ever has to be purchased on faith alone • Amazon gives me a social group of others who have purchased the product • that can give me the inside story on its flaws and advantages.
How does a Contagious Idea spread through a Network of Individuals • It starts with the Innovators. The adventurous ones. The Visionaries. • Connectors, Mavens, and Salesmen make it possible for innovations to connect with the early adopters. • These are the translators of Contagious Ideas • They take ideas from a highly specialized world • And translate them into a language the rest of us can understand • They drop extraneous details and exaggerate other details • so that the message itself acquires a deeper meaning.
Overload • The networked world is one of information overload • Mavens are trusted by those who know them • We need to know mavens so we can get advice and information • Connectors can then transfer the advice of a maven across social boundaries that a maven might not be able to breach • Maintaining a strong social network of friends with different areas of interest and from different social groups is necessary for their success and personal well-being
Critical Mass • The environment must be right for a message to spread • Then tiny things always spark great change • There is that one dramatic moment in an epidemic when everything can change all at once. • Ideas and products and messages and behaviors spread just like viruses do. • This is the critical mass or tipping point
The Law of the Few • There are exceptional people out there who are capable of starting social epidemics • All you have to do is find them • With an epidemic, a tiny majority of the people do the work • Mavens are the information specialists • Who solve their own problems – their own emotional needs – by solving other people's problems • The opinion of a Maven is of interest to many • In a social epidemic, Mavens are data banks • They provide the message