Southwest Asia Nationalism 14.4 India and SW Asia Paul Chang
Table of Contents • Spread of Nationalism in SW Asia • Republic of Turkey - Mustafa Kemal • Iran • Saudi Arabia • SW Asia’s Oil Resources • Related pictures
Spread of Nationalism in SW Asia • After World War I, people of Southwest Asia also fought for independence. • Ottoman Empire broke, and growing Western interest in SW Asia rose the nationalism in this region.
Republic of Turkey • After World War I, Turkey was the only remain of Ottoman Empire. • Greek soldiers invaded Turkey and tried to conquer. • The Turkish sultan was too weak to resist. • Mustafa Kemal overthrew the sultan and became the president of ‘Republic of Turkey.’
Mustafa Kemal • Previously, he was an army commander. • Allies defeated Ottoman Empire • Mustafa led the Turkish Independence movement. • His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. • He implemented what are known as Atatürk's Reforms, and modernized Turkey • He is revered by the Turkish people as the Father of the Nation.
Iran • Britain and Russia had spheres of influence in Persia • Britain tried to take over all of Persia • A Persian nationalist, Reza Shah Pahlavi, revolted. • He modernized Persia by establishing public schools, building railroads and industrializing the country. • He changed the country’s name to Iran • Unlike Kemal, he seized all the power by himself.
Saudi Arabia • In 1902, Ibn Saud, successfully unified Arabia • He renamed the kingdom Saudi Arabia. • This country strictly followed Islamic law, Ex) Alcohol was limited. • Only religiously acceptable areas were modernized.
SW Asia’s Oil Resources • Southwest Asia had natural oil resource • Oil resource led Europeans' oil explorations. • Europe invested huge money to develop these oil fields. • This important resource led to Southwest Asia's dramatic economic changes. • Also this resource encouraged Western nations to try to conquer the region.
Related pictures <-Oil field in SW Asia Map of Saudi Arabia oil industry
Related pictures • Bush’s desire for Iran oil. • Iran’s oil production
SW Asia Oil related cartoons • A couple of oil related cartoons by cartoonist Mike Luckovich • Bush’s threat to Iran