US Expansion 1800-1860 • Why did US citizens want to move west? • Who were the promoters of US expansion? • What new territory was added to the US between 1800 & 1860? • What was the cost in acquiring the new territory? • What effect did the addition of new territory have on the US? Elbow Room
US Expansion 1800-1860 President Jefferson wanted a way to ensure US use/control of the important port of New Orleans (currently under French control).
What luck, at this exact moment a major slave revolt in Haiti. A Caribbean island also controlled by France Napoleon Bonaparte French dictator 1799-1815 Many French masters lost their heads. French dictator Napoleon did all he could to stop the revolt. The slaves took over the sugar plantations He spent big $$$$ Not Napoleon Dynamite
Again, A slave revolt here Cost a lot of $$ for the French government led by This guy Not this guy
So, with the empty wallet Napoleon needed to get some fast cash He offered to sell the Louisiana territory- which vaguely included all land west of the Mississippi river Remember Pres. Jefferson originally wanted to control the port of New Orleans The price $15 million Congress authorized the purchase of New Orleans for up to $10 million
Oh, Mr. Jefferson… Congress gives the OK to spend $10 million on a city BUT WAIT… I can buy the whole ball of wax for only $5 mil more… what a sweet deal.. No authority to make the deal without the approval of congress The only problem… In a move which was probably unconstitutional, Jefferson made the deal in the year 1803 Jefferson
So, lets review Thomas Jefferson,,, defender of the constitution leader of the republicans Just totally violated the constitution & more than double the size of the United States The man who said ”The government has only those powers specifically granted in the constitution” “That constitution is for everyone else”
Pres. Jefferson Quickly sent These guys Lewis & Clark To check out the new Real Estate Regarding Indians Pres. Jefferson hoped that contact with “civilization” would lead to Indian enlightenment & the adaptation of the ways of civil man. Regarding T. Jefferson re-election He: Cut Taxes Expanded territory Paid off debt He was re-elected in 1804 by a landslide ending the Federalist party
Lewis & Clark Explored the new land and brought back great reports about how Fabulous it was “OUT WEST” So, people started moving out there. The Presidents 4. James Madison 1809-1817 5. James Monroe 1817-1825 6. John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 7. Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 Aka. “Old Hickory” Jackson had been a war hero in the war of 1812
What was the war of 1812 about anyway? Before we discuss the war of 1812, lets find out about those pesky Indians who weren’t letting us have “our” land. A war in 1812 It actually lasted until 1815 Basically, the US declared war on Great Britain to stop them from providing supplies to the Indians and maybe gain a little territory in the process. After all we got it fair and square.. French Indian war (from France) Revolutionary war (from England) Louisiana purchase (from France) What about those Indians?
The major problems started in 1794, when two brothers Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa decided to get all the natives in the Ohio Valley to ban together & stop white settlement in the area. This coalition of native forces along with British aid defeated US forces at the Battle of fallen timbers
The US sent Gen William Henry Harrison to fix the problem Gen. Harrison defeats the Indian forces at the battle of Tippecanoe opening the Ohio valley to settlement. For his heroics he was elected the 9th President of the US But, what about those dirty rotten British & their helping the savages..
Back to the war of 1812 The causes: 1. British help of Indians in the west i.e. Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa in Ohio 2. British impressments of US merchant sailors. 3. Western “War Hawks” like Henry Clay in congress push for war 4. Canada looks good
The War of 1812 The hero’s: President Madison Dolly Madison The USS Constitution Francis Scott Key The troops @ Fort McHenry Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson “Old Hickory” Besides being a national hero, Jackson was also a Psycho, uneducated , odd dude from Tennessee “The hero of New Orleans” “The common man’s president” A real national hero Unless of course your of the Cherokee nation He got to be president & he had an idea… Jackson
His idea involved Indians and was called: REMOVAL Of course it smaller but there are fewer of them Indian territory 1838 Indian territory 1492 REMOVAL
REMOVAL. Year: 1830-1839 Pres. Jackson’s plan was simply to remove all Indians to the WEST side of the Mississippi River Congress Voted on the Plan YES Calvary = guys with guns on horses Tribe after tribe was marched off by the Calvary 70,000 Indians were “removed”. Froze Ate bad food Thousands died in the forced marches removal exhaustion Trail of Tears disease
Our beautiful nation’s next President Martin Van Buren Called it a wise and humane policy to be continued
The West Thomas Jefferson bought it Lewis & Clark explored it Andrew Jackson got the Indians off it.
Manifest Destiny It’s time for people to move there!! The United States citizens realized that they had a pre ordained “fate” to spread the country from sea to shining sea Unfortunately, Mexico was in the way a little tiny bit… Just a speck- (including : California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah…
The Louisiana Territory wasn’t enough So- Settlers crossed the border into Mexico - TEXAS White settlers (with slaves) began to settle TX in the 1820’s They raised big cattle on huge ranches. War broke out in 1836 – TX gained independence from Mexico, and became a state of the Union next…
California US citizens began to settle there.. And in 1849 after gold is discovered @ Setters Mill, Capt John Freemont & his men put up a Bear flag and called California independent Hey with all this gold we need to make California independent What else can we get from Mexico?
UTAH Salt lake city was settled by Mormons- seeking religious freedom in 1847. The Mormons were good neighbors … they got along with Mexico and the Indians
Just to prove they weren’t picking on Mexico Settlers also flooded into Oregon Which was claimed by Britain (the US made a deal and got the territory peacefully) It hasn’t stopped raining since Lewis & Clark