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Dark Romantic (1800-1860)

Dark Romantic (1800-1860)

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Dark Romantic (1800-1860)

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  1. Dark Romantic(1800-1860) Ashley Poole Michael Easterwood Daniel Raubolt

  2. Dark Romantic History • History has always made a strong connection to literary works of the time. • Historical events and what is going in the world and the specific author’s life effects the themes and tone of the pieces produced. • Many short stories, poems, novels-expressing emotion • Spiritual and emotional views, literary elements expressing insight and thought in emotion • Dark works, torment, human psyche, inner feelings • Problems in US gave depressing inspiration to writers

  3. Slavery • In the early 1800’s, 900,000 of the 1 million African Americans living in the United States are enslaved. • Slaves were owned by plantation farmers • Were whipped, beaten, mistreated • Paid nothing, worked every day • North and South argued about slave rights, and free states/slave states • Abolitionist group arose around the 1820’s

  4. Westward Expansion • The Louis and Clark expedition in 1804 • began westward expansion in the United States • Taking almost two years to explore, the expedition led to endless possibilities for American boundaries • The Louisiana Purchase literally doubled the size of the United States • Jefferson bought the land between the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, stretching fro the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian border • Overnight, the United States boundaries expanded by nearly one million square miles

  5. Industrial Revolution • Industrialization changed the way that many Americans lived their lives • Large scale production took home manufacturing out of the lifestyle of Americans • They were usually paid low wages and worked 12 or more hour days • This lead to many problems such as child labor and horrible living conditions • Many injuries and disfigurations associated with factories • Many Americans lived in these poor conditions while the Industrial Revolution was taking place in America

  6. Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) • Poe was born in 1809 in Boston, MA • His father left shortly after his birth. A year later, his mother died • Poe lived with the Allans after his own family died • He attended the University of Virginia • Poe also joined the army and the US Military Academy at West Point • He married his cousin Virginia in 1835. She died in 1847 at the age of 24 • Died at the age of 40 in 1849

  7. Poe-2 • Poe worked as a magazine editor • He wrote a few volumes of poetry and one novel (The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym) • Poe’s most famous poem was “The Raven”, published in 1845 • Poe couldn’t get out of poverty and he twice suffered from depression and madness • Poe is credited with inventing the detective story • Remembered for using imagery and sound effects and showing different sides of human nature

  8. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) • Born in 1804 in Salem, MA • His father died in 1808, so he lived with his mother and sisters • Descendant of a Salem witchcraft trial judge and a judge who persecuted Quakers • Graduated from Maine’s Bowdoin College in 1825 • Died in 1864

  9. Hawthorne-2 • He wrote his most famous book, The Scarlet Letter, in 1850 • It was about the sin and guilt among early Puritans in Massachusetts • Hawthorne’s writing was shaped by the sense of inherited guilt he had about being related to the judges • He showed a gloomy vision of human affairs • He wrote many short stories and three other major novels

  10. Herman Melville (1819-1891) • Born in New York City in 1819 to a wealthy merchant • His dad’s business failed and then his dad died in 1832, so Melville had to work as a child to support the family • Spent several years working on whaling ships • Briefly served in the Navy • Melville died in 1891

  11. Melvile-2 • His first two books were popular, but the next few he made weren’t • In 1851, Melville published his most famous book, Moby Dick (called The Whale) • It had many layers of meaning • The book was criticized and considered a failure during his lifetime • Melville’s works became valued among scholars during the 1920’s

  12. Slavery • Worked for long hours for nothing • Owned by the plantation master • Beaten and whipped often • Sang folk songs and told stories to deal with problems • Lived on cotton and tobacco plantations

  13. Industrialization • Child labor, many hours, low pay, dangerous conditions • Filthy streets, cities, and rivers from waste • Large increase of products made • Gloomy ambiance presented by the factories

  14. Invention-Typewriter • Early type writer invented in 1821 • Christopher Sholes • Very important in the everyday work life • Was the “early computer” • Made writing documents, stories or articles much easier and efficient

  15. Indian removal due to expansion • Trail of tears- Indians forced off land • Endured whole winters, little or no food • Thousands of deaths • White settlers discovered gold on Cherokee land • Occurred close to a year-long and depressing

  16. Westward expansion • Louisiana Purchase-doubled size of the United States. • Cost $15,000,000 bought from France • Many Americans moving west for land and opportunity • Exploring the unknown, navigation of the Mississippi River

  17. Cultural battles • Tensions between North and South rise • North wants industry, no slavery, change • South wants farming, slaves, no change • Dispute between free and slave states • Void formed between lifestyles

  18. High Regard for Inner Feeling and Emotion • Writers change style from earlier American writers • Embody emotion into writing • Valued intuition over logic and reasoning • Intense emotions such as love, hate, passion, fury • Authors write more with their heart than their head

  19. Truth and Happiness Not Always Found in Life • Don’t believe that humans are perfect • prone to sin and self-destruction, they do not always have divinity and wisdom • the natural world is dark, decaying, and mysterious • bad things can and will happen resulting in an unhappy life • negative (semi-realistic) viewpoint • Disappointment and troubles in history lead to this conclusion in writing

  20. Inner workings (and dark side) of human psyche • The authors explored the complexities of people’s thought processes • Focused on how humans have a dark side to their thoughts and feelings, in contrast to Transcendalism • The Raven details a man’s thoughts after losing his lover • The Tell-Tale Heart tells of a murderer insisting he isn’t insane

  21. Dark or macabre incidents • Writings acknowledged that bad things do happen • These events can cause people to drastically change emotionally and become compulsive or obsessive • In Moby-Dick, Captain Ahab is injured and later killed by the whale • Poe’s writing was influenced by the deaths of his family members

  22. Torment- Psychological or Physical • Pain and suffering in both mind and body • Writings consisted of anguish and suffering • Events such as war and pain in the world led to writings • Push human limits beyond comfort • Many works consisted of torture to mind and body • Evil and its doings

  23. Human Nature as a Mix of Both Good and Evil • Good and evil happenings • How the human mindset can change and be affected • If one seems good, might not always be so • All good has evil, all evil has good • Multiple intentions • Corruption and holiness

  24. Bibliography Dethloff, Henery C. "Louisiana Purchase". Worldbook Online Reference Center. August 19. 2008 <>. Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes: The American Experience. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. page numbers. "Quirino, Elpidio." World Book Online Reference Center. August 19. 2008 <>. "Timeline: 1800-1860 The Triumph of nationalism and the Nation Dividing". National Humanities Center. August 18, 2008 <>.

  25. Bibliography-Pictures • "Herman Mellvile". The American Novel. 8/22/08 <>. • "Industrialization in France". The France of Victor Hugo. 8/22/08 <>. • "Nathaniel Hawthorne". The American Novel. 8/22/08 <>.

  26. "Print Gallery 1". Guthrie Studios. 8/22/08 <>. "Royal Typewriter Company". 8/22/08 <>. "Seven Historical Figures Who Married Their Cousins ". Mental_Floss. 8/22/08 <>.

  27. " Civil War Soldier in Combat WebQuest (Grades 10-12)". SoldierStudies. 8/22/08 <>. • "The Great South". Documenting the American South. 8/22/08 <>. • "The Louisiana Purchase". World Book. 8/22/08 <>.