Victimization Culture and Attainment Adena Galinsky Suzumi Yasutake Nan Marie Astone
Research Questions • What is the association between being victimized at school and educational attainment? • What is the association between levels of victimization at school and educational attainment? • Does level of victimization at school alleviate or exacerbate individual risk factors?
National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) • Nationally Representative Sample of 8th Graders in 1988 • Stratified, sample of schools then sample within schools • Freshened in both 1990 and 1992 • Therefore also nationally representative sample of 10th graders in 1990 and 12th graders in 1992 • Followed Up four times • 1990, 1992, 1994, 2000 • Multiple Informants • Students • Parents (1988 and 1992) • School Administrator (1988, 1990, 1992) • Teachers (3 per student) • Administered their own achievement tests • Linked to the Common Core of Data • Basic database on all public schools in the U.S.
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • NELS:88 has the following measure of victimization (all measures are “at school” and metric is never, once, twice or more) • someone threatened to hurt me • got into a physical fight • someone tried to sell me drugs • Something was stolen
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • Outcomes • High school graduation/GED • Attended college • Both measured in 1994 (8th graders in 1988 would have graduated in 1992 if age for grade)
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • Looked at both • the individual’s experience of victimization • School mean level of victimization • The method we used allowed us to interpret the coefficient of the school level violence as the effect net of the individual’s experience • Also allowed us to evaluate whether or not school levels of victimization affected other risk factors
Victimization Index • Individual Level • Range 0 to 8 • Mean 1.26 • School Level • Range 0 to 2.87 • Mean 1.28 • Correlation between Individual Score and School Mean was 0.30.
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • Associations between individual victimization and outcomes • High levels associated with lower odds of • regular high school graduation • OR=.81 • secondary degree (GED or regular HS) • OR=.84 • college attendance • OR=0.85
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • Associations between school level victimization and outcomes • Lowest Quartile of Mean Victimization associated with higher odds of • regular high school graduation • OR=1.38 • secondary degree (GED or regular HS) • OR=1.36 • college attendance • OR=1.16
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • Student’s individual SES has a stronger positive association with attainment in school’s with low levels of victimization • High levels reduce the protective effect of SES
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • The negative effect of being Latino is completely eliminated in Schools with low levels of victimization
Victimization Culture and Educational Attainment • High mean levels of victimization in high school • are associated with outcomes beyond high school • affect adolescents who are not victimized • add to the already high burden of students who personally experience victimization which is already severe • Reduce the protective effect of SES • Affects Latinos particularly