RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 13 DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS
13-1Describe the overall frameworks for resource planning framework in both goods-producing and service-providing organizations. 13-2Explain options for aggregate planning. 13-3Describe how to evaluate level production and chase demand strategies for aggregate planning. 13-4Describe ways to disaggregate aggregate plans using master production scheduling and material requirements planning. 13-5Explain the concept and application of capacity requirements planning.
ill Carr, the manager of a retail pharmacy in a high-growth suburban location exclaimed, “The corporate office just doesn’t get it! They set a budget and staffing level that doesn’t fit this location. I can’t do the work and ensure accuracy of the patients’ prescriptions when the corporate office gives me an annual budget for only two pharmacists and two pharmacy technicians”. The store was part of a national pharmaceutical chain with over 1,000 locations in the United States. The pharmacy was open 16 hours a day on Monday through Saturday and 10 hours on Sunday. Carr established two shifts for these professionals but they were now exhausted. The most senior pharmacist had already threatened to quit if something wasn’t done to correct the problem soon. Carr also had considered reducing the time the store was open, but that would hurt store revenue.
What do you think? Think about planning a party or some student-related function. What resources do you need to pull it off, and how might you plan to ensure that you have everything at the right time and in the right quantity?
Resource Management deals with the planning, execution, and control of all the resources that are used to produce goods or provide services in a value chain. Resources include materials, equipment, facilities, information, technical knowledge and skills, and of course, people. Objectives: • Maximize profits and customer satisfaction, • Minimize costs, or • Maximize benefits to stakeholders.
Exhibit 13.1 Framework for Resource Management Planning for Goods and Services
Resource Planning Framework for Goods and Services Aggregate planningis the development of a long-term output and resource plan in aggregate units of measure.
Resource Planning Framework for Goods and Services Disaggregationis the process of translating aggregate plans into short-term operational plans that provide the basis for weekly and daily schedules and detailed resource requirements.
Resource Planning Framework for Goods and Services Execution refers tomoving work from one workstation to another, assigning people to tasks, setting priorities for jobs, scheduling equipment, and controlling processes.
Resource Planning Framework for Goods and Services • Most service organizations do not require as many levels of intermediate planning (Level 2) as goods-producing firms. • Level 1 and 2 planning are often combined in service businesses.
Exhibit 13.2 Two Levels of Disaggregation for Many Service Organizations
Aggregate Planning Options • Managers have a variety of options in developing aggregate plans in the face of fluctuating demand: • Demand management • Production-rate changes • Workforce changes • Inventory smoothing • Facilities, equipment, and transportation
Exhibit 13.3 Example Aggregate Planning Variables and Revenue/Cost Implications
Strategies for Aggregate Planning • Alevel production strategy plans for the same production rate in each time period. • Achase demand strategy sets the production rate equal to the demand in each time period.
Exhibit 13.4 Level Aggregate Production Plan for Golden Beverages (Excel Agg Plan – Level Template)
Exhibit 13.5 Chase Demand Strategy for Golden Beverages (Excel Agg Plan – Chase Template)
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Three important techniques for disaggregating aggregate plans into executable operations plans: • Master production scheduling (MPS) • Materials requirements planning (MRP) • Capacity requirements planning (CRP)
Exhibit 13.6 Disaggregation Framework for Manufacturing Plans and Schedules
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Master Production Schedule (MPS) • A master production schedule (MPS)is a statement of how many finished items are to be produced and when they are to be produced. • Typically developed for weekly time periods over a 6- to 12-month horizon.
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Materials Requirements Planning (MRP) • Materials Requirements Planning (MRP) is a forward-looking, demand-based approach for planning the production of manufactured goods and ordering materials and components to minimize unnecessary inventories and reduce costs. • The output of an MRP system is a schedule for obtaining raw materials and purchased parts, a detailed schedule for manufacturing and controlling inventories, and financial information that drives cash flow, budget, and financial needs.
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • MRP depends on understanding three basic concepts: • dependent demand, • time-phasing, and • lot sizing
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Dependent demandisdemand that is directly related to the demand of other SKUs and can be calculated without needing to be forecasted. • A bill of labor (BOL) is a hierarchical record analogous to a BOM that defines labor inputs necessary to create a good or service. • End items are finished goods scheduled in the MPS or FAS that must be forecasted. • A parent item is manufactured from one or more components. • Components are any item (raw materials, manufactured parts, purchased parts) other than an end item that goes into a higher-level parent item(s). • A subassembly always has at least one immediate parent and also has at least one immediate component.
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Time Phasing and Lot Sizing in MRP • Dependent demand requirements do not need to be ordered at the same time, but are time-phased as needed. • Orders may be consolidated to take advantage of ordering economies of scale; this is called lot sizing.
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Time Phasing and Lot Sizing in MRP • MRP explosionis the process of using the logic of dependent demand to calculate the quantity and timing of orders for all subassemblies and components that go into and support the production of finished goods. • Time buckets are the time period size used in the MRP explosion process and usually are one week in length.
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • An MRP record consists of: • Gross requirements (GR) are the total demand for an item derived from all of its parents. Scheduled or planned receipts (S/PR) are orders that are due or planned to be delivered. • Planned order receipt (PORec) specifies the quantity and time an order is to be received. • Planned order release (PORel) specifies the planned quantity and time an order is to be released to the factory or a supplier. • Projected on-hand inventory (POH) is the expected amount of inventory on-hand at the beginning of the time period considering on-hand inventory from the previous period plus scheduled receipts or planned order receipts minus the gross requirements.
Exhibit 13.10 Bill of Material Production of a single product (A), which requires the components B, C, and D.
Exhibit 13.11 Item Inventory File Exhibit 13.12 Example MPS
Disaggregation in Manufacturing • Lot sizing is the process of determining the appropriate amount and timing of ordering to reduce costs. • Three common lot-sizing methods for MRP: • Lot-for-lot (LFL) • Fixed order quantity (FOQ) • Periodic order quantity (POQ)
An ordering schedule that covers the gross requirements for each week is called lot-for-lot (LFL). Exhibit 13.13 MRP Record for Item C Using the Lot-for-Lot (LFL) Rule
The fixed order quantity rule (FOQ)uses a fixed order size for every order or production run. Exhibit 13.14 Item B Fixed Order Quantity (FOQ) Lot Sizing MRP Record
The periodic order quantity (POQ)orders a quantity equal to the gross requirement quantity in one or more predetermined time periods minus the projected on-hand quantity of the previous time period. Exhibit 13.15 Item D Fixed Period Quantity (POQ) Lot Sizing and MRP Record
Exhibit 13.16 Summary of MRP Explosion for Bill of Material in Exhibit in 13.10
Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) is the process of determining the amount of labor and machine resources required to accomplish the tasks of production on a more detailed level, taking into account all component parts and end items in the materials plan.
Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP) • Capacity requirements are computed by multiplying the number of units scheduled for production at a work center by the unit resource requirements and then adding in the setup time. • Capacity required (Ci) = Setup time (Si) • + [Processing time (Pi) Order size (Qi)] • This is Equation 10.2 in Chapter 10.
Greyhound Frequent Flyer Call Center Case Study • Analyze the case data and current schedule, and answer the following “baseline” questions. What’s labor utilization for each 30-minute period given the current staffing plan? Is the main problem lack of staff capacity or poor scheduling, or both? Can you support your answer with numerical analysis? • What is the cost of abandoned and busy signal calls for a typical Monday day? Annually? (Make and state assumptions as needed.)
Greyhound Frequent Flyer Call Center Case Study • Develop a better CSR staff schedule (see Excel current staff schedule in Exhibit 13.23) if needed and decide whether the company should hire more CSRs or lay off a few. Will you use part-time employees? If so, explain why and justify. • What are your final recommendations? Explain and justify. Note: Exhibits 13.22 and 13.23 are found as Excel files in the OM4 Data Workbook on the CourseMate web site.