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  1. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  5. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 556 - 557 Plants What Is a Plant? The Diversity of Plants Plant Structure and Function Reproduction in Plants

  8. Chapter Contents – page x Chapter 22The Diversity of Plants 22.1:Nonvascular Plants 22.1:Section Check 22.2:Non-Seed Vascular Plants 22.2:Section Check 22.3:Seed Plants 22.3:Section Check Chapter 22Summary Chapter 22Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 576 What You’ll Learn You will identify the characteristics of the major plant groups.

  10. Chapter Intro-page 576 What You’ll Learn You will identify and compare the distinguishing features of vascular and nonvascular plants. You will analyze the advantages of seed production.

  11. 22.1 Section Objectives – page 577 Section Objectives: • Identify the structures of nonvascular plants. • Compare and contrast characteristics of the different groups of nonvascular plant.

  12. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 What is a nonvascular plant? • Because a steady supply of water is not available everywhere, nonvascular plants are limited to moist habitats by streams and rivers or in temperate and tropical rain forests.

  13. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 What is a nonvascular plant? • Recall that a lack of vascular tissue also limits the size of a plant. • Nonvascular plants, such as moss are successful in habitats with adequate water.

  14. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Alternation of generations • As in all plants, the life cycle of nonvascular plants includes an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte. • However, nonvascular plant divisions include the only plants that have a dominant gametophyte generation.

  15. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Alternation of generations • Sporophytes grow attached to and depend on gametophytes to take in water and other substances. • Non-photosynthetic sporophytes depend on their gametophytes for food.

  16. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Alternation of generations • Gametophytes of nonvascular plants produce two kinds of sexual reproductive structures. • The antheridium is the male reproductive structure in which sperm are produced.

  17. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Alternation of generations • The archegonium is the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced. • Fertilization, which begins the sporophyte generation, occurs in the archegonium.

  18. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • There are several divisions of nonvascular plants. • The first division you’ll study are the mosses, or bryophytes. • Mosses are small plants with leafy stems.

  19. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • The leaves of mosses are usually one cell thick. • Mosses have rhizoids, colorless multicellular structures, which help anchor the stem to the soil.

  20. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • Some species have a few, long water-conducting cells in their stems. • Mosses usually grow in dense carpets of hundreds of plants.

  21. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • Some have upright stems; others have creeping stems that hang from steep banks or tree branches. • Some mosses form extensive mats that help retard erosion on exposed rocky slopes. • Moses grow in a wide variety of habitats.

  22. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • They even grow in the arctic during the brief growing season where sufficient moisture is present. • A well-known moss is Sphagnum, also known as peat moss.

  23. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • This plant thrives in acidic bogs in northern regions of the world. • It is harvested for use as fuel and is a commonly used soil additive.

  24. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta • Another division of nonvascular plants is the liverworts, or hepaticophytes. • Liverworts are small plants that usually grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats.

  25. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta • The flattened body of a liverwort gametophyte is thought to resemble the shape of the lobes of an animal’s liver. • A liverwort can be categorized as either thallose or leafy.

  26. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta • The body of a thallose liverwort is called a thallus. It is broad and ribbonlike and resembles a fleshy, lobed leaf. • Thallose liverworts are usually found growing on damp soil.

  27. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta • Leafy liverworts grow close to the ground and usually are common in tropical jungles and areas with persistent fog. • Their stems have flat, thin leaves arranged in three rows—a row along each side of the stem and a row of smaller leaves on the stem’s lower surface. • Liverworts have rhizoids that are composed of only one elongated cell.

  28. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta • Anthocerophytes are the smallest division of nonvascular plants, currently consisting of only about 100 species. • Also known as hornworts, these nonvascular plants are similar to liverworts in several respects.

  29. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta Sporophyte with sporangium (2n) • Hornworts have a thallose body. • The sporophyte of a hornwort resembles the horn of an animal. Gametophyte (n)

  30. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Anthocerophyta • Another feature unique to hornworts is the presence of one to several chloroplasts in each cell of the sporophyte depending upon the species. • Unlike other nonvascular plants, the hornwort sporophyte, not the gametophyte, produces most of the food used by both generations.

  31. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Origins of Nonvascular Plants • Fossil and genetic evidence suggests that liverworts were the first land plants. • Fossils that have been positively identified as nonvascular plants first appear in rocks from the early Paleozoic Era, more than 440 million years ago.

  32. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Origins of Nonvascular Plants • Paleobotanists suspect that nonvascular plants were present earlier than current fossil evidence suggests. • Both nonvascular and vascular plants probably share a common ancestor.

  33. Section 1 Check Question 1 The only plants that have a dominant gametophyte generation are the _______. (TX Obj 2; 8C, 10A, 10B, TX Obj 3; 13A) A. vascular plants B. flowering plants C. nonvascular plants D. ferns The answer is C.

  34. Section 1 Check Question 2 The rhizoid in mosses has a function comparable to _______. (TX Obj 2; 8C, 10A, 10B, TX Obj 3; 13A) A. The flower in flowering plants B. The cone in conifers C. The root in vascular plants D. The leaf in cycads

  35. Section 1 Check The answer is C. Rhizoids anchor the stems of mosses to the soil as roots do in other plants.

  36. Section 1 Check Question 3 What is the main functional difference between hornwort sporophytes and those of other nonvascular plants? (TX Obj 2; 8C, 10A, 10B, TX Obj 3; 13A) Answer Hornwort sporophytes contain chloroplasts and produce most of the food for both generations of the plant.

  37. 22.2 Section Objectives – page 581 Section Objectives: • Evaluate the significance of plant vascular tissue to life on land. • Identify and analyze the characteristics of the non-seed vascular plant divisions.

  38. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 What is a non-seed vascular plant? • The obvious difference between a vascular and a nonvascular plant is the presence of vascular tissue. • Vascular tissue is made up of tubelike, elongated cells through which water and sugars are transported. • Vascular plants are able to adapt to changes in the availability of water, and thus are found in a variety of habitats.

  39. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 What is a non-seed vascular plant? Xylem transports water and dissolved substances other than sugar throughout the plant. Phloem Xylem Phloem transports dissolved sugar throughout the plant. Cambium Cambium produces xylem and phloem as the plant grows.

  40. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations • Vascular plants, like all plants, exhibit an alternation of generations.

  41. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations • Unlike nonvascular plants, the spore-producing vascular sporophyte is dominant and larger in size than the gametophyte. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

  42. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations • The mature sporophyte does not depend on the gametophyte for water or nutrients. Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (n)

  43. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations • A major advance in this group of vascular plants was the adaptation of leaves to form structures that protect the developing reproductive cells. • In some non-seed vascular plants, sporebearing leaves form a compact cluster called a strobilus.

  44. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations • A fern gametophyte is called a prothallus. • Gametophytes are relatively small and live in or on the soil. • Antheridia and archegonia develop on the gametophyte. • Sperm are released from antheridia and require a continuous film of water to reach eggs in the archegonia.

  45. Egg Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Alternation of generations Archegonium Prothallus Rhizoids Sperm Antheridium

  46. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta • Lycophytes are commonly called club mosses and spike mosses.

  47. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta • Their leafy stems resemble moss gametophytes, and their reproductive structures are club or spike shaped. • However, unlike mosses, the sporophyte generation of the lycophytes is dominant.

  48. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta • It has roots, stems, and small leaflike structures. • A single vein of vascular tissue runs through each leaflike structure. • The stems of lycophytes may be upright or creeping and have roots growing from the base of the stem.

  49. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta • The club moss, Lycopodium, is commonly called ground pine because it is evergreen and resembles a miniature pine tree.