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  1. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  5. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 32-33 Ecology Principles of Ecology Communities and Biomes Population Biology Biological Diversity and Conservation

  8. Chapter Contents – page vii Chapter 2Principles of Ecology 2.1:Organisms and their Environment 2.1:Section Check 2.2:Nutrition and Energy Flow 2.2:Section Check Chapter 2Summary Chapter 2Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 34 What You’ll Learn You will describe ecology and the work of ecologists. You will identify important aspects of an organism’s environment. You will trace the flow of energy and nutrients in the living and nonliving worlds.

  10. 2.1 Section Objectives – page 35 Section Objectives: • Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment. • Compare the different levels of biological organization and living relationships important in ecology. • Explain the difference between a niche and a habitat.

  11. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Sharing the World • What affects the environment also affects you. • Understanding what affects the environment is important because it is where you live.

  12. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Studying nature • The study of plants and animals, including where they grow and live, what they eat, or what eats them, is called natural history. • These data reflect the status or health of the world in which you live.

  13. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 What is ecology? • The branch of biology that developed from natural history is called ecology. • Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.

  14. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Ecological research • Scientific research includes using descriptive and quantitative methods. • Most ecologists use both descriptive and quantitative research. • They obtain descriptive information by observing organisms.

  15. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Ecological research • They obtain quantitative data by making measurements and carrying out controlled experiments in the field and in the laboratory.

  16. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The Biosphere • The biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports living things. • It extends from high in the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceans.

  17. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The Biosphere • Although it is thin, the biosphere supports a diverse group of organisms in a wide range of climates. • Living things are affected by both the physical or nonliving environment and by other living things.

  18. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors • The nonliving parts of an organism’s environment are the abiotic factors. • Examples of abiotic factors include air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil.

  19. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors • Ecology includes the study of features of the environment that are not living because these features are part of an organism’s life. • Abiotic factors have obvious effects on living things and often determine which species survive in a particular environment.

  20. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors • This graph shows how the plant’s glucose (food) production is affected by temperature. Food Production in Salt Bush 15 10 Food production (mg of glucose/hr) 5 40 30 50 20 10 Temperature (°C)

  21. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The living environment: Biotic factors • A key consideration of ecology is that living organisms affect other living organisms. • All the living organisms that inhabit an environment are called biotic factors. • All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction or protection.

  22. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Levels of Organization • Ecologists study individual organisms, interactions among organisms of the same species, interactions among organisms of different species, as well as the effects of abiotic factors on interacting species. • Ecologists have organized the living world into levels—the organism by itself, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  23. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organism • An individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops.

  24. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within populations • A population is a group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area at the same time.

  25. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within populations • Members of the same population may compete with each other for food, water, mates, or other resources. • Competition can occur whether resources are in short supply or not.

  26. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities • Just as a population is made up of individuals, several different populations make up a biological community.

  27. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities • A biological community is made up of interacting populations in a certain area at a certain time.

  28. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities • A change in one population in a community may cause changes in the other populations. • Some of these changes can be minor, such as when a small increase in the number of individuals of one population causes a small decrease in the size of another population.

  29. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities • Other changes might be more extreme, as when the size of one population grows so large it begins affecting the food supply for another species in the community.

  30. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Ecosystem • Populations of plants and animals that interact with each other in a given area and with the abiotic components of that area.

  31. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems • An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the community’s abiotic factors. • There are two major kinds of ecosystems—terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.

  32. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems Table 2.1 Examples of Ecosystems • Terrestial ecosystems are those located on land. Aquatic Ecosystems Other Sites for Ecosystems Terrestrial Ecosystems • Human body • Skin • Intestine • Mouth • Buildings • Mold in walls, floors, or basement • Ventilation systems • Bathrooms • Food • Any moldy food • Refrigerator • Freshwater • Pond • Lake • Stream • Estuary • Salt water (marine) • Ocean • Estuary • Aquarium • Forest • Old farm field • Meadow • Yard • Garden plot • Empty lot • Compost heap • Volcano site • Rotting log

  33. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems • Aquatic ecosystems occur in both fresh- and saltwater forms. Table 2.1 Examples of Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Other Sites for Ecosystems Terrestrial Ecosystems • Human body • Skin • Intestine • Mouth • Buildings • Mold in walls, floors, or basement • Ventilation systems • Bathrooms • Food • Any moldy food • Refrigerator • Freshwater • Pond • Lake • Stream • Estuary • Salt water (marine) • Ocean • Estuary • Aquarium • Forest • Old farm field • Meadow • Yard • Garden plot • Empty lot • Compost heap • Volcano site • Rotting log

  34. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems • Freshwater ecosystems include ponds, lakes, and streams.

  35. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems • Saltwater ecosystems, also called marine ecosystems, make up approximately 70 percent of Earth’s surface.

  36. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organisms in Ecosystems • A habitat is the place where an organism lives out its life.

  37. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organisms in Ecosystems • Habitats can change, and even disappear. Habitats can change due to both natural and human causes.

  38. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Niche • Although several species may share a habitat, the food, shelter, and other essential resources of that habitat are often used in different ways. • A niche is the role or position a species has in its environment—how it meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces in its environment.

  39. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Niche • A species’ niche, therefore, includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat. • It is thought that two species can’t exist for long in the same community if their niches are the same.

  40. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Symbiosis • The relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of different species is called symbiosis. • Simbiosis means living together. Three kinds of symbiosis are recognized: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

  41. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Mutualism • A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is called mutualism.

  42. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Commensalism • Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited.

  43. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism • Some interactions are harmful to one species, yet beneficial to another. • A symbiotic relationship in which a member of one species derives benefit at the expense of another species (the host) is called parasitism.

  44. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism • Parasites have evolved in such a way that they harm, but usually do not kill the host species.

  45. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism • A predator is a type of consumer. Predators seek out and eat other organisms.

  46. Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism • Predation is found in all ecosystems and includes organisms that eat plants and animals. • The animals that predators eat are called prey.

  47. Section 1 Check Question 1 The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment is __________. A. abiosis B. symbiosis C. ecology D. biology

  48. Section 1 Check The answer is C. Ecology is a branch of biology that developed from natural history.

  49. Section 1 Check Question 2 Which of the following is found in the biosphere? A. ozone layer B. maria C. the Sun D. constellation Orion